What Nobelists do with their Nobel Prize Medal and Cash and their Charity
Chemist, Inventor, Awesome Administrator, Social Reformer.
"It could and should soon come to pass that all states pledge themselves collectively to attack an aggressor. That would make war impossible, and would force even the most brutal and unreasonable Power to appeal to a court of arbitration, or else keep quiet."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economics Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013
Nobel co-recipients Lars Peter Hansen, Robert J. Shiller
Economist. Empirical analysis of asset prices. Influenced development of index funds. Father of modern finance. Idea is 'how do you measure risk?' Windsurfing, golf, opera.
In University of Chicago - Economics. Environment so productive. "We have good people, you need that; very interactive environment; people help one another out a lot. I couldn't do what I did without the help of my professors, colleagues and students. Everybody contributes to everybody else."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka
Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.
At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.
Organic Chemist. Inventor of organozinc variant of the palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Read voraciously including "how to …" publications. Dreamt of Nobel half century prior to being awarded prize. Upon arriving in US and discovering Nobelists visiting UPenn, realized that being awarded the Nobel could happen to anybody including himself.
The Nobel Peace Prize 2009
US President, Attorney, Democrat. Award: ‘Extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy, cooperation between peoples.’
Prevented Iran acquiring nuclear weapon. Reopened relations with Cuba. Saved auto industry. Deal: slow climate change. Obamacare. Voter registration drive. African American. Orator
“Our actions matter, can bend history in direction of justice.”
“Yes we can!”
The Nobel Peace Prize 2008
Peace broker. Peacefully ended conflicts worldwide. Namibia’s independence from South Africa following war. Yugoslavia - end to the war in Kosovo. Indonesia - Aceh Peace Accord following war.
Founded Crisis Management Initiative.
“Peace is question of will. All conflicts can be settled. No excuses for allowing them to become eternal.”
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
Nobel Prize also awarded to George F. Smoot
Physicist - Astrophysics, Instrumentation. COBE, Blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
"For years I had successfully repelled all challenges to my concentration on one overwhelming responsibility. Now, it was done, and I switched my attention to ..."
The Nobel Peace Prize 2005
Joint awardee: International Atomic Energy Agency
Attorney, Egyptian Diplomat. ‘Prevent military use of nuclear energy, ensure nuclear energy used safely for peace.’ Worked in UN. Director General, IAEA. IAEA:
‘to accelerate, enlarge atomic energy contribution to peace, health, prosperity throughout world.’
“Durable peace is not a single achievement, but an environment, a process and a commitment.”
The Nobel Peace Prize 2000
President, S. Korea, ‘Sunshine Politician’. ‘Democracy, human rights in South Korea, East Asia; peace, reconciliation with North Korea.’ Assassination attempts. Jailed. Exiled in US.
“King is son of heaven. Heaven sent him to serve people with just rule. If he unjust, oppresses people, people have right to dispose of him.”
The Nobel Peace Prize 1996
Co-nobelists: José Ramos-Horta
“Nations will proclaim his wisdom; the assembly will celebrate his praises. If he lives long, his name will be more glorious than a thousand others, and if he dies, that will satisfy him just as well”
(Wisdom 39, 10-11)
“… it expresses with deep significance the memory of the man we remember this day whose esteemed Peace Prize bears his name. Today, 10th December, we celebrate the centennial anniversary of the death of a wise benefactor of humanity, a peace worker, Alfred Nobel.” - Nobel Lecture, Nobel foundation.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
Co Nobelists Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion
Chemist, Pharmacologist. Discovered principles for drug treatment; developed drugs - anticancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-gout, anti-malarial. Purines. 6-mercaptopurine, Imuran,
allopurinol, pyramethamine, trimethoprim, Acyclovir.
“My greatest satisfaction … save lives, relieve suffering. At baptism, my father dedicated my life to service of mankind. Very proud … able to fulfill his hopes.”
The Nobel Peace Prize 1982
Co-nobelist: Alfonso García Robles
Diplomat, Innovator, Writer. Disarmament, Nuclear Weapons-Free Zones. Technology and growth in violence. Women's rights. Swedish Ambassador to India. Insightful.
“Never forget trampling down of human dignity, rights, increase in acts of violence, torture use, testifies to persistence in contempt for suffering of individual men and women.”
“Down with nuclear weapons!”
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982
Crystallographic electron microscopy. Biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes’ structural elucidation. Viruses’ 3D imaging. Zinc fingers.
“Saw Rosalind Franklin’s beautiful tobacco mosaic virus’ X-ray photographs. From then on my fate was sealed.”
“Aaron could see colleagues’ strengths, weaknesses in observations; inspired them to conduct more rigorous, adventurous research.” - Richard Henderson.
Physician, Scientist - Immunologist, teacher, remarkable leader. Discovered genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.
“Baruj did not always get on well with those in authority, often because he felt he could do their jobs so much better than they did …”
The Nobel Peace Prize 1980
Human Rights Leader, Architect, Sculptor. Believed in nonviolence. Fought for indigenous peoples.
“It is essential to have inner peace and the serenity of prayer to listen to the silence of God, which speaks to us, in our personal life and the history of our times, of the power of love.”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Co-nobelist Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz
Biologist - Ornithologist. Discovered ‘organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns’. Sticklebacks fish. Bee wolf, a digger wasp, Philanthus Triangulum. Adventurous. Elder brother Jan Tinbergen is Economics Nobelist, 1969, the first year the Economics prize was awarded. Both awarded at age 66yrs.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
Nobel co-recipients: H. Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg
Organic Chemist. 'Interpreted genetic code and its function in protein synthesis' First chemical synthesis of penicillin. Research: amino acids, peptides, protein biosynthesis. Discovered and isolated tRNA [transfer RNA] - alanine transfer RNA.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1968
Jurist, Judge, Humanitarian, Internationalist. Father of the Declaration of Human Rights.
'As a child I was filled with passionate admiration for acts of civic courage I had seen performed by an elderly military doctor, who was a friend of my family.” - René Cassin
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
The President's National Medal of Sciences - Biological Sciences 1997
Co-Nobelists Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins
Zoologist. ‘Discovered molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.’
Very generous with subordinates regarding authorship of articles.
“Good science is difficult. We must believe strongly in our ideas.”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
Physicist, Communication engineer. Psychophysiology of hearing. Physical mechanism of stimulation within cochlea, a frequency analyzer. Accidental selection of science field. Technically skillful, elegant experimental design. He nuisance to autopsy room, mechanical workshops.
"Found inner ear beautiful under stereoscopic microscope. It was pleasure of beauty that made me stick to ear."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Co-Nobelists Fritz Lipmann
Physician, Biochemist. Discovered citric acid cycle in which nutrients are converted to chemical energy molecules which are converted to ATP used in chemical processes. Krebs-Henseleit cycle.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Co-Nobelists: Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey
Physician - Bacteriologist, Immunologist. While researching Influenza virus, made ground breaking discovery: penicillin, by not neglecting chance observation - mould contaminating culture plate. WWI caused interest in Antiseptics. WWII, production cost was immaterial. Destiny.
Lone worker gets idea; details developed by team, but prime idea is due to enterprise, thought, perception of an individual.
Alexander Fleming's Nobel Prize medal is in the National Museums of Scotland.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
Co-Nobalists George R. Minot, William P. Murphy
Physician; Pathologist. Pernicious anaemia liver therapy. Whipple Disease. Intestinal parasites. Blackwater fever. WWII, Chloroform anesthesia induced liver necrosis. Liver regeneration. Tuberculosis. Pancreatitis. Used Nobelists Joliot Curie’s, Fermi’s, E.O. Lawrence’s radioactive isotopes; discovered iron metabolism; protein metabolism, distribution, functions. Bile constituents. Red cell stroma.
Gentle. Quiet. Wanted to be remembered as teacher.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933
Zoologist, Geneticist. Chromosome role in heredity, sex determination. Drosophila. Genes stored in chromosomes in nuclei. Epigenetics. Combination rule. Limited number of combination groups. Crossing-over rule. Linear arrangement of genes in chromosomes.
Didn’t attend Nobel award ceremony, because in Caltech, busy establishing new physiology group and with future of biochemistry, genetics.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Atomic Physicist. Molecular Diffraction of Light. Raman Effect. Structure, optical behaviour of iridescent substances. Acoustics, violin.
Raman lost Nobel Prize money to fraudulent financer. Meeting fraudster years later, he said: You deserve Nobel Prize for your cunning in duping Nobel Laureate!
Playful comment: Unfortunately Economics Nobel instituted later in 1969!
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924
Physician, Physiologist. Discovered electrocardiogram [EKG/ECG] mechanism. It was known that heart generates weak electrical current varying in health, heart disease. Invented galvanometer recording these currents. Named electrical waves P, Q, R, S, T. [P petite; next letters in alphabet]. Interests: Physics, Acoustics, Asthma, Optics, Physical activity. Great concentration. Generous, Kind.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909
Physician, Surgeon. Award: “Thyroid physiology, pathology, surgery.” Lister’s principles. Relatively bloodless surgical field. “Kocher incision”. Recurrent laryngeal nerve damage: hoarseness; tetany,
hypoparathyroidism. Myxedema: thyroid transplantation, tissue extracts injection, oral therapy.
Brain: damage, increased intra-cranial pressure, trepanation. Abdominal surgery. “Kocher mobilization”. Orthopedics: hereditary malformations, fracture. Hernia. Incision selection. Epilepsy. Osteomyelitis. Statistics.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907
Physician. "protozoa cause diseases." Malarial parasite discovery received with skepticism. Sleeping sickness. Trypanosomes in different animals, countries. 1914-1918 concern: troops’ health.
“After vain attempt to detect parasite in air, water, soil; cultivate in varied media, I became convinced: microbe was already present outside human body as parasite, probably of mosquitoes.”
The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
President, USA. International Peace Arbitrator, various treaties. Vigorous, businesslike. "We abhor bully, oppressor, in private or public life". Conservationist, protected 230,000,000 acres of public land.
After camping in Yosemite National Park, "It was like lying in a great solemn cathedral, far vaster and more beautiful than any built by man."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
Co-nobelist: Camillo Golgi
Physician, Anatomist, Pathologist, Artist. Discovered nervous system structure. Stained nerve cells with silver nitrate.
Proved nerve cell’s independence, impulse travels from one cell to another by synapse. Barber’s, Shoemaker’s apprentice.
“Oh comforting solitude, how favorable thou art to original thought!”
“Outstanding work results from immense zeal applied to great idea.”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Physician. Founder, phototherapy in dermatology. Lupus vulgaris treatment. Researched salt. Despite having Niemann-Pick disease,
strong willed, persevering.
Denmark early education - Rector: "Niels is a very nice boy. His gifts are small; he’s devoid of energy." Cause: fagging for older pupils. Moved to Iceland school; succeeded despite not knowing language.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902
Physician. Mosquitoes’ malarial parasites life-cycle. Mathematical models for epidemiology. Malaria prevention. Contributed to pure, applied mathematics.
‘My microscope was worn out, screws rusted with sweat from hands, forehead; remaining eye-piece cracked; invaluable oil-immersion lens remained good.’
‘Dingy military hospital, cracked microscope, medicine bottles - only laboratory and apparatus I possessed.’
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901
Physician. Serum therapy, especially against diphtheria. Tuberculosis. Distinguished friends, associates: Friedrich Althoff, Prussian Under-Secretary, Education, Cultural Affairs; Ludolph Brauer, colleague, Internal Medicine, Marburg Medical Faculty; Friedrich Loeffler, bacteriologist; Ilya Mechnikov, 1908 Medicine Nobelist, Russian researcher, discovered phagocytosis, exchanged ideas; Émile Roux, Louis Pasteur’s pupil, researched diphtheria; Erich Wernicke, friend, colleague.
The Nobel Peace Prize 2001
“The Arab Spring reminds me of the decolonisation process where one country gets independence, and everybody else wants it.
“I am a stubborn optimist: I was born an optimist and will remain an optimist.
“The Lord had the wonderful advantage of being able to work alone.” - Kofi Annan
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