Chemist, Inventor, Awesome Administrator, Social Reformer.
"It could and should soon come to pass that all states pledge themselves collectively to attack an aggressor. That would make war impossible, and would force even the most brutal and unreasonable Power to appeal to a court of arbitration, or else keep quiet."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka
Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.
At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.
Physical organic chemist. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Sole author - 7 consecutive papers. Heck reaction: important concept, tool for organic and medicinal chemists; fuorescence labeling of DNA bases - sequencing DNA/Genome. Thinner computer screens in future. "Great art in test tube."
Growing orchids in early teens lead to passion for chemistry.
Organic Chemist. Inventor of organozinc variant of the palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Read voraciously including "how to …" publications. Dreamt of Nobel half century prior to being awarded prize. Upon arriving in US and discovering Nobelists visiting UPenn, realized that being awarded the Nobel could happen to anybody including himself.
Organic chemist. Inventor of boron version of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Investigated stereochemistry of hydroboration reaction. Suzuki reaction kept evolving. Became interested in organic chemistry after reading textbook.
"There were difficult and joyful periods. Memories of tough, trying experiences tend to fade with time. Now I think mainly about fun things."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009
Nobel co-recipient Elinor Ostrom
Economist and Founding Editor of the Journal of Law, Economics and Organization. His book, The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting, is said to be the most frequently cited work in social science research.
The Oliver Williamson Award was created by my colleagues at the Haas School of Business to honor outstanding faculty (one each year) at the Haas School
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999
Nobel Prize also awarded to Martinus J.G. Veltman
Theoretical Physicist - Particle Physics. For PH.D Thesis work in 1971, Nobel Prize awarded in 1999.
"A man who knows everything," my answer at age 8 yrs, regarding what I'd like to become when I grow up. I meant "scientist", someone who unravels the secrets of the fundamental Laws of Nature.
Asteroid 9491 Thooft is named for 1999 Nobel physics laureate Gerardus 't Hooft. The laureate 't Hooft has drawn up a constitution for future visitors of the asteroid, poking fun at the IAU's naming conventions, as in article 4 with, "Since the I.A.U. was unable to place an apostrophe in the name of 9491 Thooft, any other uses of apostrophes on 9491 Thooft or within its territorial zone will be outlawed. No keyboards that have an apostrophe key will be allowed on the asteroid."
National Medal of Science - Mathematics and Computer Science 1997
Mathematician. Differential geometry, Differential equations, General relativity. Calabi-Yau manifolds. Miyaoka-Yau inequality. Founder: Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong; Morningside Center of Mathematics at Academia Sinica; Center of Mathematical Sciences at Zhejiang University; Tsinghua Mathematical Sciences Center, China. Adviser more than 50 doctoral students.
Family fled mainland China and Communist takeover when he was an infant. Leader of street gang and often skipped school.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Co-Nobelists: Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen
The President's National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1993
Organic Chemist. Development, use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity. Taught himself solid geometry from book, winning scholarship. High emotional intelligence.
When word "research" entered my vocabulary, it had magic ring, suggesting search for new phenomena. Chemical research became my god, and conducting it, my act of prayer.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982
Crystallographic electron microscopy. Biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes’ structural elucidation. Viruses’ 3D imaging. Zinc fingers.
“Saw Rosalind Franklin’s beautiful tobacco mosaic virus’ X-ray photographs. From then on my fate was sealed.”
“Aaron could see colleagues’ strengths, weaknesses in observations; inspired them to conduct more rigorous, adventurous research.” - Richard Henderson.
Organic Chemist. Development of use of boron into important reagents in organic synthesis. School, advanced several times, graduating at 12; refused further advancement, avoiding being sister's classmate.
Graduating, Depression years, future wife Sarah gave him gift, Stock's 'Hydrides of Boron and Silicon' because cheapest chemistry book! Led to Nobel Prize!
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993
Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.
"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Nobel Prize also awarded to Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
National Medal of Science-Biological Sciences 1976 USA
Physician, Physiologist, Neuroendocrinologist. Peptide hormone production of brain. Visual Artist.
Alfred Nobel chose to associate Literature and Science in his legacy. The mission, role and responsibility to society of a scientist and an artist are the same.
Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.
How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.
National Medal of Science Science - Biological Sciences 1973
Plant Physiologist. Photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation. Child prodigy. Post-Sputnik national committee. Wrote four chapters on evolution of life processes in "Blue Series"
high-school biology textbook, widely translated, nationally acclaimed. Budgeted well time and circumstances. Debater, played devil's advocate with zest.
Reminded those weary of duplicating, "Repetition is the mother of learning."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
National Medal of Sciences - Biological Sciences 1978
Co-Nobelists: Robert W. Holley, Marshall W. Nirenberg
Organic Chemist, Biochemist. 'Genetic code interpretation, function in protein synthesis. Pioneered synthesizing biologically active gene, determine codon triplets'
nucleotides order. Unraveled genetic code, how nucleic acids form proteins. Pioneered genetic engineering. Multidisciplinary work.
"Wife brought sense of purpose. In foreign country, I felt out of place everywhere, at home nowhere."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
The President's National Medal of Sciences - Biological Sciences 1997
Co-Nobelists Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins
Zoologist. ‘Discovered molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.’
Very generous with subordinates regarding authorship of articles.
“Good science is difficult. We must believe strongly in our ideas.”
The Nobel Prize in Physics, 1961
Nobel co-recipient Rudolf Mössbauer
National Medal of Science - Physical Science 1986
Nuclear and particle physicist. Discoverer of sodium iodide scintillation counters. Carried out electron scattering from atomic nuclei, revealing structure of nuclei and nucleons. Original proposer of two-mile SLAC linear accelerator. Pioneer of gamma-ray astronomy, using EGRET detector aboard the Compton observatory. Research in laser fusion, applications of physics to medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
Physicist, Communication engineer. Psychophysiology of hearing. Physical mechanism of stimulation within cochlea, a frequency analyzer. Accidental selection of science field. Technically skillful, elegant experimental design. He nuisance to autopsy room, mechanical workshops.
"Found inner ear beautiful under stereoscopic microscope. It was pleasure of beauty that made me stick to ear."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960
Co-Nobelist Peter Medawar
Physician – Pathologist, Immunologist, Virologist, Bacteriologist. Discovered acquired immunological tolerance - important for transplantation. Cultivated viruses on chorioallantoic membrane, determined inoculated material concentration. Red blood cells haemagglutination by viruses. Virus complexity. Neuropathogenicity transfer. Virus infections prevention. Typhoid fever agglutinin reactions. Isolated influenza A virus strain. Vibrio cholera receptor-destroying enzyme. Excellent teacher.
Biochemical Geneticist. Discovered that genes act by regulating definite chemical events. Brought era of classical genetics to a close and launched molecular age.
"It was a time when one went to work in the morning wondering what new excitement the day would bring." - Colleague and biographer Norman H. Horowitz.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Co-Nobelist Hans Krebs
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1966
Physician, Biochemist. Discovered co-enzyme A, its importance for intermediary metabolism. Identified serine phosphate as constituent of phosphoproteins which contain phosphate. CMP represents metabolically active carbamyl donor.
Liljestrand, Science Academy: …Regarding fundamental discoveries laymen ask for immediate practical application. Counter question of Benjamin Franklin: Of what use is a new-born baby?
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Co-Nobelists Fritz Lipmann
Physician, Biochemist. Discovered citric acid cycle in which nutrients are converted to chemical energy molecules which are converted to ATP used in chemical processes. Krebs-Henseleit cycle.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991
Nobel co-recipient: Edwin M. McMillan
Nuclear Chemist. Transuranium - Plutonium. Isotopes identification. Actinide concept. Atomic Bomb. Peaceful use of atomic energy. Advisor to 10 US Presidents. Swedish ancestry. Journal since age 8 yrs. Hiking.
Franck Report: "I had joined a committee of scientists who advocated the use of the atomic bomb for demonstration purposes. We hoped the enemy would see the destructive power of this weapon and immediately surrender. In June, 1945, we attempted to deliver our plan, the Franck Report, to President Truman. I don't know if he ever saw our work..."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Nobel Co-recipients Tadeus Reichstein, Phillip S.Hench
Chemist. Adrenal cortex hormones including cortisone: structure, biological effects. Thyroid hormone thyroxine: isolated. Glutathione: crystallized, established structure.
What physiologic processes are modified by cortisone and how this influence is exerted are matters still locked within this hormone. Said Shakespeare's soothsayer, "In Nature's infinite book of secrecy a little I can read."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
Co-Nobalists George R. Minot, William P. Murphy
Physician; Pathologist. Pernicious anaemia liver therapy. Whipple Disease. Intestinal parasites. Blackwater fever. WWII, Chloroform anesthesia induced liver necrosis. Liver regeneration. Tuberculosis. Pancreatitis. Used Nobelists Joliot Curie’s, Fermi’s, E.O. Lawrence’s radioactive isotopes; discovered iron metabolism; protein metabolism, distribution, functions. Bile constituents. Red cell stroma.
Gentle. Quiet. Wanted to be remembered as teacher.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
Physician - Anatomic Pathologist, Father of Immunology. ABO Blood Groups, Rh Typing. Paroxysmal Haemoglobinuria. Polio. Spirochaetes. Chemistry into service of serology. Meticulous observation, description, understanding in many fields.
Rigorously demanding of himself. Energetic. By nature somewhat pessimistic, preferred to live away from people.
Characteristic of him - died pipette in hand.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1927
Historian. Member, German Parliament. Professor, Berlin University
"…Kant found the only assurance for peace in the idea that war would become so terrible and unbearable that human beings, even though they remain as morally weak as they now are, would be forced to work together for peace…"
The Nobel Peace Prize 1922
Zoologist, Oceanographer, Polar Explorer, Expert Skier, Humanitarian.
As the first League of Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, he invented 'Nansen Passports' for stateless refugees.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Nobel Co-recipient Archibald V. Hill
Physician. Energy conversions in muscle. Fine experimenter, Physiological Chemist.
Science should know no national barriers and prejudices. Scientists should pour oil smoothing real wisdom and rational self-reflection in agitated waves of national passions of people. This ethos of objectivity causes mutual understanding among nations. Consider all Nobel Prizes, 'Peace' Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920
Norwegian writer. In youth, poverty stricken. Little formal education. Leader of Neo-Romantic revolt. Promoted individualism. Exciting description of nature.
"I sat looking at her with rapt attention. What a wonderful pleasure to be sitting in a human dwelling again, and talk with a lively young girl instead of with myself!"
Bearing Hamsun's name. Hamsun Centre. Please scroll down to virtual tour.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Indian Poet, Bangali, English. All literary genres. Voice of India's Spiritual Heritage. Social reformer. Promoted gender equality, empowerment of women. Indian National Movement participant. Mahathma Gandhi was his devoted friend. Founder, school in Shantiniketan. Author, National Anthem of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.
"Love does not claim possession, but gives freedom."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1913
Lawyer, Socialist, Parliamentarian, Peace Activist. International Peace Bureau. Internationalism, "An Intellectual Parliament" for Humanity. Cofounder, Institut international de bibliographie. Education. Women's rights. Labor. Cultural achievements.
When Germany invaded Belgium, 1914, "Peoples will be as before, the sheep sent to the slaughterhouses or to the meadows as it pleases the shepherds."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Nobel Co-recipient Tobias Asser
Publisher, Philosopher. Founder, Die Friedenswarte (peace publication). Permanent Court of Arbitration, Netherlands. Collaborator, Nobelist Bertha von Suttner. Propaganda for peace: war was proof of validity of pacifistic analysis of world politics.
War is not in itself a condition so much as the symptom of a condition, that of international anarchy.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909
Physician, Surgeon. Award: “Thyroid physiology, pathology, surgery.” Lister’s principles. Relatively bloodless surgical field. “Kocher incision”. Recurrent laryngeal nerve damage: hoarseness; tetany,
hypoparathyroidism. Myxedema: thyroid transplantation, tissue extracts injection, oral therapy.
Brain: damage, increased intra-cranial pressure, trepanation. Abdominal surgery. “Kocher mobilization”. Orthopedics: hereditary malformations, fracture. Hernia. Incision selection. Epilepsy. Osteomyelitis. Statistics.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909
Author. Lofty idealism, vivid imagination. Described peasant life, Nordic nature accompanied by ethical strength, deep religious feeling. Respect for Nature, Women's Causes. 1914, became member of the Swedish Academy which awards Nobel Prize for Literature.
"Nothing on earth can make up for the loss of one who has loved you."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1908
Nobel Co-recipient Fredrik Bajer
Parliamentarian, writer. Founder, Swedish Peace and Arbitration League. Inspiring orator.
Without peace there is no freedom, individual or national. War and hostilities are a form of slavery. Under such conditions, laws are silent. Without peace there is nothing truly human. Peace is harmony. Harmony is the highest ideal of life.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel Co-recipient Paul Ehrlich
Ukrainian Zoologist. Theory of cellular immunity. Father of Natural immunity. Research: Comparative embryology, Phagocytosis, Anthrax, Rabies.
Weak eyesight, heart troubles, difficulties in University lead to pessimism. Twice attempted suicide. Discovery of phagocytosis completely changed his outlook on life; abandoned his pessimistic philosophy and determined to find further proof of hypothesis.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
President, USA. International Peace Arbitrator, various treaties. Vigorous, businesslike. "We abhor bully, oppressor, in private or public life". Conservationist, protected 230,000,000 acres of public land.
After camping in Yosemite National Park, "It was like lying in a great solemn cathedral, far vaster and more beautiful than any built by man."
The Nobel Peace Prize in Chemistry 1906
Chemist - inorganic. Isolated fluorine. Moissan's electric furnace. Blue perchromic acid formula, crystallized chromic acid. Uncovered silicon carbide, other carbides, borides, silicides. Theorized:
from molten iron crystallize carbon under pressure, obtain synthetic diamonds. Meticulous, patient. Articulate lecturer.
“Scientific research is search for truth. Only after discovery, applicability can be considered.”
The Nobel Peace Prize 1905
Generalissimo, Peace Movement. Author, 'Lay Down Your Arms'. Permanent International Peace Bureau. Vigorously opposed militaristic traditions. Eternal truth: happiness created, developed in peace. Eternal right: individual's right to live.
"Inform me, convince me, and then I will do something great for the movement", Alfred Nobel said to Bertha von Suttner."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Doctor. Founder of phototherapy in dermatology. Contributed to treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation. Researched effects of salt. Despite having Niemann-Pick disease, strong willed, persevering.
Early education in Denmark - Rector: "Niels is a very nice boy, but his gifts are small and he is quite devoid of energy." This may have been due to fagging for older pupils. Moved to school in Iceland; succeeded despite initially not knowing language.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903
Physicist, Physical Chemist. Electrolytic theory of dissociation
“Humanity stands ... before a great problem of finding new raw materials, new sources of energy that shall never become exhausted. In the meantime, we must not waste what we have, but must leave as much as possible for coming generations.” - Arrhenius.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1903
Co-founder, Inter-Parliamentary Union. Secretary, International Arbitration League. British Parliamentarian. World organizing. Prevent war. Founder, Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners.
Upon entering into treaties of arbitration, the disputants would have time for reflection, for while arbitrators were deliberating, passions of contending parties would cool and chances of war greatly diminished.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Nobel co-recipient Albert Gobat
Permanent International Peace Bureau [1910 Nobel Peace Prize]. Nobelist Passy's description: "exactitude, firmness." History Demonstrates War's Futility. Predicted, 1901: Despite modern weapons' destructiveness, wars will ebb, flow. Alfred Nobel's Contemporary.
Nobel Chairperson Løvland, "You Swiss, with your sense of life's realities, have special gift for taking ideas from realm of dreams and turning them into realities."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902
Physician. Mosquitoes’ malarial parasites life-cycle. Mathematical models for epidemiology. Malaria prevention. Contributed to pure, applied mathematics.
‘My microscope was worn out, screws rusted with sweat from hands, forehead; remaining eye-piece cracked; invaluable oil-immersion lens remained good.’
‘Dingy military hospital, cracked microscope, medicine bottles - only laboratory and apparatus I possessed.’
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902
Sugar, purine syntheses. Produced phenylhydrazine. Artificial sugars. Purines from caffeine.
Businessman father, “Emil too stupid to be business man; better be a student.” Sent him to study chemistry.
“Sciences aren’t abstract constructions, but result of human endeavor; they are connected with personalities and fates of dedicated researchers who developed them.”
The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Nobel co-recipient: Henry Dunant
Alfred Nobel's contemporary. Apostle of Peace, Humanitarian, Economist, Lawyer, Politician. Founder, French peace society. Free trade between independent nations promotes peace. Inspired by Nobelist Randal Cremer.
Opposed France's colonial policy. 1905 Sweden-Norway conflict, declared, '…peaceful solution will make me hundred times happier than when I received Nobel Prize…' Wish fulfilled.
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