The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economics Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013
Nobel co-recipients Lars Peter Hansen, Robert J. Shiller
Economist. Empirical analysis of asset prices. Influenced development of index funds. Father of modern finance. Idea is 'how do you measure risk?' Windsurfing, golf, opera.
In University of Chicago - Economics. Environment so productive. "We have good people, you need that; very interactive environment; people help one another out a lot. I couldn't do what I did without the help of my professors, colleagues and students. Everybody contributes to everybody else."
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2007 USA
Nobel co-recipient Brian K. Kobilka
Physician- Cardiologist, Scientist. G-protein-coupled receptors;
approximately half of all medicines used today use this kind of receptor.
"Strong family history of coronary artery disease ... at age 50 I had quadruple bypass surgery . I minimize my risk factors with daily physical exercise, a vegetarian diet and appropriate medications".
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka
Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.
At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.
Nobel Peace Prize 2011
Nobel Co-recipients Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Tawakkol Karman
Liberian peace activist, social worker, women's rights advocate. Brought together Christian and Muslim women in a nonviolent movement that played a pivotal role in ending Liberia's civil war. Founder, Gbowee Peace Foundation Africa.
"Went from being an angry, broke, virtually homeless, 25-year-old mother to listening to the voice of God."
Physical organic chemist. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Sole author - 7 consecutive papers. Heck reaction: important concept, tool for organic and medicinal chemists; fuorescence labeling of DNA bases - sequencing DNA/Genome. Thinner computer screens in future. "Great art in test tube."
Growing orchids in early teens lead to passion for chemistry.
Organic Chemist. Inventor of organozinc variant of the palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Read voraciously including "how to …" publications. Dreamt of Nobel half century prior to being awarded prize. Upon arriving in US and discovering Nobelists visiting UPenn, realized that being awarded the Nobel could happen to anybody including himself.
Organic chemist. Inventor of boron version of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Investigated stereochemistry of hydroboration reaction. Suzuki reaction kept evolving. Became interested in organic chemistry after reading textbook.
"There were difficult and joyful periods. Memories of tough, trying experiences tend to fade with time. Now I think mainly about fun things."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009
Nobel co-recipient Elinor Ostrom
Economist and Founding Editor of the Journal of Law, Economics and Organization. His book, The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting, is said to be the most frequently cited work in social science research.
National Medal of Science - Mathematics and Computer Science 2009
Mathematician. Algebraic geometry, Vision and Pattern Theory. Pure and Applied math. History and Philosophy of math, Math education. Sailing.
"Research enterprise depends on the free dissemination of scholarly material.
National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2009
Cognitive neuroscientist, Business Administrator. Brain/behavior relationships in humans, nonhuman primates. Identified … areas in cerebral cortex essential for perception and memory: cortico-limbic circuit responsible for memory of facts and events; cortico-striatal circuit responsible for learning of different types of habits and motor skills.
"Perseverance is built into the trait of curiosity, a scientist's motivation. If you're sufficiently curious, you're willing to continue despite failures and obstacles. It's so easy to give up."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008
National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2008
Psychologist. Cognitive neuroscience - attention, early brain development, changes in brain systems with learning; developmental disorders; brain injury. Posner cueing task. Founding Director, Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Nobel prize also awarded to Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001
Molecular Geneticist. Introduced specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells. Gene Targeting, Homeobox Genes, Development, Behavior.
Mother incarcerated as political prisoner, Germany. "At age 4½, I set off on my own, living in streets, orphanages; joining gangs of homeless children; generally hungry. Vivid recollections, brutal beyond description."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
Nobel Prize also awarded to George F. Smoot
Physicist - Astrophysics, Instrumentation. COBE, Blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
"For years I had successfully repelled all challenges to my concentration on one overwhelming responsibility. Now, it was done, and I switched my attention to ..."
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2006
Plant Molecular Biologist. Geneticist. First to clone and characterize maize transposons. Founding director, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences. Interests: Education, Public Policy.
"It's as much wanting to succeed as it is to using your brains. I've seen very bright people fall out of the system".
National Medal of Science - Behavior and Social Science 2005
"Psychologist, Cognitive-Social. Human memory, mnemonic devices, retrieval strategies, recording strategies, category learning. Cognitive processes, emotion, imagery, language and reading comprehension as they relate to memory. Mathematical Models, Computer Simulation of Memory, Behavior Modification."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988
Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.
"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002
Nobel co-recipient Daniel Kahneman
Electrical Engineer, Experimental Economist. Founder, International Foundation for Research in Experimental Economics; Founder Economic Science Institute at Chapman University.
"... If I am ever reborn, I hope to be a madman yet again ..."
National Medal of Science - Biological Science 2002
Zoologist - Molecular Geneticist. E. coli. DNA mutagenesis and DNA repair. Interests: Science education in public schools; Connections between contemporary Victorians poet Robert Browning and Charles Darwin.
Essentially same grant from 1956 until retirement in 1991.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Nobel co-recipients Eric A. Cornell, Carl E. Wieman
Physicist - Atomic Physics. Hobbies: Running, Bicycling.
"...the quest for pure knowledge and the pursuit of goals which are only vaguely defined and change as the research progresses... I didn't anticipate that the best was still to come".
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2001
Co-nobelists:George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001
Archeologist. Father of underwater archaeology. Excavated shipwrecks of Bronze Age, Classical Age, Byzantine. Founded Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Findings throw new light into beginning of free enterprise system, dating Homer's Odyssey, chronologies of Egyptian dynasties, Helladic cultures; histories of technology, economics, music, art, religion.
"The greatest thrill comes from the library, when you can understand something about what you've found, when it all comes together and it means something."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Co-nobelists Zhores Alferov, Herbert Kroemer
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2000
Psychiatrist, Litterateur. Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience, Genomics, Neuroimaging, Neuroscience of Creativity, Schizophrenia. Writes books to educate laity and reduce stigma. Founding Chair, Neuroscience Section, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
Creative people tend to be very persistent, even when confronted with skepticism or rejection.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999
Nobel Prize also awarded to Martinus J.G. Veltman
Theoretical Physicist - Particle Physics. For PH.D Thesis work in 1971, Nobel Prize awarded in 1999.
"A man who knows everything," my answer at age 8 yrs, regarding what I'd like to become when I grow up. I meant "scientist", someone who unravels the secrets of the fundamental Laws of Nature.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Nobel Prize also awarded to Robert F. Furchgott and Ferid Murad
Molecular & Medical Pharmacologist
While testifying before Congress in 2000, Ignarro remarked: "Only in America could the son of an uneducated carpenter receive the Nobel Prize in Medicine."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Nobel co-recipients Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
Physicist. Development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. Think about physics intuitively. Open, lively discussion of physics problems. Do physics at frontiers competitively with openness, humanity, cooperation. Excellent teacher. Religious.
"No prize can compare in importance to family and friends I count as my greatest treasures".
National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1997
One of two Fathers of the Internet. TCP/IP protocols. Internet
Architecture. Chief Internet Evangelist, Google. Interplanetary Internet.
"Brilliant, indescribably enthusiastic, humorous, happy, treats people extremely well. It would be nice to go to work every day and work with people like Vint Cerf." – R.V. Nagaveni, Founder, Ganga Library.
National Medal of Science - Mathematics and Computer Science 1997
Mathematician. Differential geometry, Differential equations, General relativity. Calabi-Yau manifolds. Miyaoka-Yau inequality. Founder: Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong; Morningside Center of Mathematics at Academia Sinica; Center of Mathematical Sciences at Zhejiang University; Tsinghua Mathematical Sciences Center, China. Adviser more than 50 doctoral students.
Family fled mainland China and Communist takeover when he was an infant. Leader of street gang and often skipped school.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996
Co-nobelist: James A. Mirrlees
Economist, Mathematician. 'Fundamental contributions to economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information.' Solve real world problems. Interests: efficiency of public services, irrational budget accounting, excessive concern with inflation, insufficient attention to wasteful unemployment, macroeconomic stabilization, ethics, philosophy, world peace.
Rip van Winkle award for deep, uninterrupted concentration while attending seminars.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994
Co-Nobelists: John F. Nash Jr., Reinhard Selten
Economist. Contributed to developing game theory. Hungarian-American.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994
Co-nobelist Bertram N. Brockhouse
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1993
Co-nobelists: Douglass C. North
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1992
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991
Writer, illustrated consequences of apartheid. For fifty years the 'Geiger Counter of Apartheid.
"My answer is: Recognize yourself in others"." A child understands fear, and the hurt and hate it brings". "Time is change; we measure its passing by how much things alter".
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990
Organic Chemist - Interested in application of organic chemistry to human health. His groups have achieved a multitude of total syntheses of complex molecules. Originator of retrosynthetic analysis. Recognized as "Most Cited Author in Chemistry" by American Chemical Society in 2002.
"Organic chemistry was especially fascinating with its intrinsic beauty and its great relevance to human health."
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Nobel Prize shared by J. Michael Bishop
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001
Physician, Scientist, Litterateur. Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Co-founder, Public Library of Science Journals. Initiated doubling NIH budget. Interests: cycling, rowing.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1989
Religious and Political Leader of Tibet
Head of nonviolent opposition to China's occupation of Tibet.
"Human happiness and human satisfaction must ultimately come from within oneself."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1989
Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1988 USA
Nobel Prize shared with Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz
Physicist, Cosmologist, Astrophysicist. Hobbies: Playing the Flute, Tennis, Mountaineering, Sailing.
To Ganga Library founder on 3 Aug 2014, "I have used your questions to me as an incentive to prepare a list of my publications".
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991
Chemist, Pharmacologist. Discovered principles for drug treatment; developed drugs - anticancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-gout, anti-malarial. Purines.
"I was a child with an insatiable thirst for knowledge. My beloved grandfather died of cancer when I was 15. I was highly motivated to discover a cure for this terrible disease".
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Nobel co-recepients Donald J. Cram, Charles J. Pedersen
Chemist. Interests: Supramolecular chemistry, Self-assembly and self-organization, Constitutional dynamic chemistry; Music, Philosophy.
Founding director, 'Chemistry, a European Journal'. Gave starting impetus to other European journals, rare manifestation of European spirit and supranationality bridging historical divides!
President, International Organization for Chemical Sciences in Development, helping chemists in developing countries.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Co-Nobelists: Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen
The President's National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1993
Organic Chemist. Development, use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity. Taught himself solid geometry from book, winning scholarship. High emotional intelligence.
When word "research" entered my vocabulary, it had magic ring, suggesting search for new phenomena. Chemical research became my god, and conducting it, my act of prayer.
National Medal of Science - Mathematics and Computer Science 1987
American mathematician. Proof of Poincare Conjecture in dimension four. One of the greatest achievements in mathematics in this century. Fields Medal, 1986.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1986
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1985
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983
Co-Nobelist: William A. Fowler
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983
The President's National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1970
Cytogeneticist. Mobile genetic elements, 1948. Nobel after 35 years. Skilled experimentalist, master cytological detail interpreter, brilliant theoretician. Solo labor, no technical help. Friendly fellow scientists. Discriminated as woman.
"Tacit assumptions - substance of dogma - served as barrier to effective communication. My understanding of phenomenon was too radical for time."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1983
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982
The President's National Medal of Science - Behavior and Social Science 1987
Economist - industrial organization. 'Seminal studies of industrial structures; functioning of markets; causes, effects of public regulation.' Great teacher. Writings easy to admire, joy to read, impossible to imitate. Interest: many areas of economics; history of economics. Very Humorous.
Chicago Economics Department intellectual ferment - intense intellectual atmosphere; captivated him.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981
Nobel Prize also awarded to Kenichi Fukui
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1983 USA
Chemist, Poet, Philosopher, Writer, Chemistry Teacher Text/Television.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Nobel co-recipients David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel
The President's National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1989
Psychologist, Philosopher, Zoologist, Neuroanatomist. Functional specialization of cerebral hemispheres. Split-brain studies. Duality of consciousness. Mind and consciousness. High ethical standards. Authorship generosity.
Ralph Gerard, "I know of nobody else who has disposed of cherished ideas of his doctoral and postdoctoral sponsors, at that time the acknowledged leaders in their fields."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1981
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
Nobel co-recipients: Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset
Geneticist, Transplantation Immunologist. Genetically determined structures on cell surface that regulate immunological reactions, the major histocompatibility complex, HLA. Thesis work on linkage in mice largely determined future work. Interest: social evolution.
"In examining histocompatibility genetics as one of several potential new undertakings, I thought I saw possibilities for new openings."
Organic Chemist. Development of use of boron into important reagents in organic synthesis. School, advanced several times, graduating at 12; refused further advancement, avoiding being sister's classmate.
Graduating, Depression years, future wife Sarah gave him gift, Stock's 'Hydrides of Boron and Silicon' because cheapest chemistry book! Led to Nobel Prize!
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
Nobel co-recipient Herbert C. Brown
Organic Chemist. Development of use of phosphorus into important reagents in organic synthesis. Wittig reaction. Mentored 300 graduate students, post-docs; provided close supervision for crucial experiments.
"Chemical research and mountaineering similar. To reach goal/summit, initiative, perseverance required. After hard work, great joy to be at goal/peak with its splendid panorama…"
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979
Co-Nobelist: Sir Arthur Lewis
Agricultural economist. Pioneered ‘human capital’ research. Population quality, knowledge matter. Concern for poor. Keen observer of world in which he lived. Very Humorous.
“Mankind's future is not foreordained by space, energy, cropland. Will be determined by intelligent evolution of humanity. Agree with Margaret Mead: "Future of mankind is open ended."”
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1978
National Medal of Science - Behavioral and Social Science, 1986
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993
Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.
"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Nobel Prize also awarded to Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
National Medal of Science-Biological Sciences 1976 USA
Physician, Physiologist, Neuroendocrinologist. Peptide hormone production of brain. Visual Artist.
Alfred Nobel chose to associate Literature and Science in his legacy. The mission, role and responsibility to society of a scientist and an artist are the same.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
Co-Nobelists: Aage N. Bohr, Ben R. Mottelson
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Nobel Co-recipients David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1992
Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.
How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1975
Co-Nobelists Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich
Mathematician, Theoretical Physicist and Economist. Prize for theory of optimal allocation of resources. Other interest: econometrics and statistics. Hobby: writing music.
Described collaborator and friend Jacob Marschak as being able to discern both pretense and timidity!
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974
National Medal of Sciences - Physical Sciences 1974
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1973
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1971
Economist and Statistician. Interpreted economic growth in a manner which helped better understand economic and social structure.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Co-Nobelists Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler
Pharmacologist. Neurophysiologist. Mechanism for storage, release, inactivation of humoral transmitters in nerve endings. Discovered drug metabolic pathways: hydroxylation, demethylation, deamination, conjugation. Led to liver’s microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes discovery. Pheochromocytoma. Carboxylmethyl transferase. Melatonin.
Ideal mentor. Infectious exhilaration in discovery. Research was genuine fun. Students came out of lab with same attitude.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1970
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969
Co-nobelist Ragnar Frisch
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Co-Nobilists Max Delbrück, Salvador E. Luria
Geneticist, Virologist. Viruses' replication mechanism, genetic structure. "Nothing more satisfying than developing method; ideas come and go, methods last." Superb editor. Remembered: chemical basis of heredity.
Nobel Awards bring happiness not only to recipients, colleagues, friends, but to strangers! Humans love ceremonies that honor truth, justice. Thank God for sentiment.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1968
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Nobel co-recipients Ragnar Granit, George Wald
Physician, Biophysicist. Physiological and chemical visual processes in eye.
"Vision itself is a dynamic process. There is little in the world that stands still, at least not as imaged in our retinas, for our eyes are always moving. The visual system is almost exclusively organized to detect change and motion."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Co-Nobalists Ragnar Granit, Keffer Hartline
Zoologist. Visual physiologist. Visual pigment molecules are protein bound to derivative of vitamin A. Excellent teacher. Political actions part of biologist: one who is concerned with life.
“Selig Hecht was great teacher, physiologist. After leaving his laboratory, I felt his presence. What I did, said, wrote, was addressed to him.”
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Co-Nobelist Charles B. Huggins
Physician, Pathologist, Scientist. Tumor-inducing Rous Sarcoma Virus, tumor filtrate transplantability. Nobel 50 yrs after discovery. Blood transfusion, world's first blood bank, Rous-Turner solution. Accurate editing, content, style. Experiments: extreme clarity. Equanimity, warmth. Many old are young to life.
"Uneducated men can be as great-hearted, lovable as those who know much."
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1964
The Nobel Prize in Physics, 1961
Nobel co-recipient Rudolf Mössbauer
National Medal of Science - Physical Science 1986
Nuclear and particle physicist. Discoverer of sodium iodide scintillation counters. Carried out electron scattering from atomic nuclei, revealing structure of nuclei and nucleons. Original proposer of two-mile SLAC linear accelerator. Pioneer of gamma-ray astronomy, using EGRET detector aboard the Compton observatory. Research in laser fusion, applications of physics to medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
Physicist, Communication engineer. Psychophysiology of hearing. Physical mechanism of stimulation within cochlea, a frequency analyzer. Accidental selection of science field. Technically skillful, elegant experimental design. He nuisance to autopsy room, mechanical workshops.
"Found inner ear beautiful under stereoscopic microscope. It was pleasure of beauty that made me stick to ear."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Nobel co-recipient Servero Ochos
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1979
Physician, Scientist. Discovered mechanisms in biological synthesis of RNA and DNA - basis of discovery of recombinant DNA which helped ignite biotechnology revolution. Founder, DNAX Institute.
"With more scientists struggling for grants in an era of tight budgets, nobody is going to propose doing anything that is bold or creative."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959
Co-Nobelist: Emilio Segrè
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Nobel co-recipients George Beadle, Edward Tatum
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1989
Geneticist. Genetic recombination and organization of genetic material of bacteria. Artificial intelligence. NASA seeking life on Mars. Fastest rate possible for growth of bacterial cell and why. Nobel Prize at age 33.
At Nobel Banquet, "Pride is humbled as humility is exalted in the dignity and splendor of this occasion."
Biochemical Geneticist. Discovered that genes act by regulating definite chemical events. Brought era of classical genetics to a close and launched molecular age.
"It was a time when one went to work in the morning wondering what new excitement the day would bring." - Colleague and biographer Norman H. Horowitz.
Geneticist, Microbiologist, Biochemist. Genes act by regulating definite chemical events. Changed from Drosophila to Neurospora. Nurtured younger scientists. Generous spirit, scientific vision.
"Ability to balance critical scientific objectivity, personal ambition, interdependence on others-some scientists take lifetime to learn-was ingrained in Tatum from beginning." - Mentee, Biographer Joshua Lederberg.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
Co-Nobilists André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann
Physician, gentle clinician, cardiovascular physiologist. "Discoveries concerning heart catheterization, pathological changes in circulatory system." Diagnosing congenital heart diseases; chronic cardiac, pulmonary diseases; traumatic shock.
"Man's potentiality, or these days his survival, will depend on his conscience, more specifically, ability of leaders and followers to change character, into more merciful beings."
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955
Co-Nobelists: Willis E. Lamb
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954
The Nobel Peace Prize 1962
National Medal of Sciences - Physical Sciences 1974
Virologist, Bacteriologist. Discovered ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture. Cytopathic effect. Interferon, Viral Oncogenesis. Tissue culture enabled identifying hundreds of viruses, vaccine development.
Memorial to Advisor Zinsser: animated spontaneous conversation - literature, politics. Voltaire seemed around corner; Laurence Sterne upon the stair. Laboratory became way of life.
Physician, Virologist, Parasitologist. Discovered ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture. Isolated many viruses, parasites; developed diagnostic tests. Isolated German measles in son. Tissue culture enabled identifying hundreds of viruses, vaccine development.
Nobel Committee Sven Gard: tissue cultures will do for virology what Koch accomplished by culture media.
Physician, Virologist. Discovered ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture. Investigated infectious hepatitis, typhus fever, Q fever, mumps, herpes simplex and vaccinia. Supervised diagnostic virus laboratory. Educator, Science Statesperson. Interest: International health. Tissue culture enabled identifying hundreds of viruses, vaccine development.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Co-Nobelist Hans Krebs
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1966
Physician, Biochemist. Discovered co-enzyme A, its importance for intermediary metabolism. Identified serine phosphate as constituent of phosphoproteins which contain phosphate. CMP represents metabolically active carbamyl donor.
Liljestrand, Science Academy: …Regarding fundamental discoveries laymen ask for immediate practical application. Counter question of Benjamin Franklin: Of what use is a new-born baby?
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952
Ukrainian-born American Microbiologist, Biochemist. Isolated several antibiotics including Streptomycin for Tuberculosis and Neomycin. Proceeds earned from patents funded Waksman Institute of Microbiology and Waksman Foundation for Microbiology.
"The Lord hath created medicines out of the earth; and he that is wise will not abhor them. Ecclesiasticus, XXXVIII , 4"
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952
Co-Nobelist: E. M. Purcell
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991
Nobel co-recipient: Edwin M. McMillan
Nuclear Chemist. Transuranium - Plutonium. Isotopes identification. Actinide concept. Atomic Bomb. Peaceful use of atomic energy. Advisor to 10 US Presidents. Swedish ancestry. Journal since age 8 yrs. Hiking.
Franck Report: "I had joined a committee of scientists who advocated the use of the atomic bomb for demonstration purposes. We hoped the enemy would see the destructive power of this weapon and immediately surrender. In June, 1945, we attempted to deliver our plan, the Franck Report, to President Truman. I don't know if he ever saw our work..."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Co-nobelist Jerome I. Friedman, Richard E. Taylor
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949
'Missing Laureate' 1948 [Nobel Peace Prize]
Hero to innumerable peace activists including Nobelists: Martin Luther King Jr., Pérez Esquivel, Dalai Lama, Suu Kyi, Nelson Mandela.
1948, Nobel Committee diplomatically declared, "no suitable living candidate".
Geir Lundestad, Secretary, Norwegian Nobel Committee, 2006: Gandhi could do without Nobel, whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946
Geneticist. Production of mutations by X-ray irradiation.
"Do you consider it possible to discover a cosmic ray which - applied to humanity - would cause a mutation making it peace-loving and suited to happy relationships? You'll be awarded another Medicine and many Peace Nobels!" - Sigurd Curman, Banquet Speech
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Co-Nobelists: Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey
Physician - Bacteriologist, Immunologist. While researching Influenza virus, made ground breaking discovery: penicillin, by not neglecting chance observation - mould contaminating culture plate. WWI caused interest in Antiseptics. WWII, production cost was immaterial. Destiny.
Lone worker gets idea; details developed by team, but prime idea is due to enterprise, thought, perception of an individual.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Nobel co-recipient Herbert S. Gasser
Physician, Physiologist. Single nerve fibers highly differentiated functions. Cathode-ray oscillograph study of nerve action potentials. Circulatory system electrophysiology. Recording sphygmomanometer. Auriculo-ventricular bundle functions. Pulse pressure influence on kidney secretion, orthostatic albuminuria. Sound production in arteries. Metabolism with shortened intestines. Traumatic shock.
Career "fraught with series of fortunate circumstances, fortunate decisions."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Co-Nobelist Joseph Erlanger
Physician, Electrophysiologist, Pharmacologist. Discovered differentiated functions of single nerve fibers. Two types of nerve fibers with different thicknesses; thicker fibers convey nerve impulses fast.
Two times for working on a problem - before anyone has thought of it and after everyone else has left it - result: innovator or finalist.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937
Co-nobelist George Paget Thomson
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1966
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936
Co-Nobelist Victor F. Hess
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1964
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
Co-Nobalists George R. Minot, William P. Murphy
Physician; Pathologist. Pernicious anaemia liver therapy. Whipple Disease. Intestinal parasites. Blackwater fever. WWII, Chloroform anesthesia induced liver necrosis. Liver regeneration. Tuberculosis. Pancreatitis. Used Nobelists Joliot Curie’s, Fermi’s, E.O. Lawrence’s radioactive isotopes; discovered iron metabolism; protein metabolism, distribution, functions. Bile constituents. Red cell stroma.
Gentle. Quiet. Wanted to be remembered as teacher.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933
Zoologist, Geneticist. Chromosome role in heredity, sex determination. Drosophila. Genes stored in chromosomes in nuclei. Epigenetics. Combination rule. Limited number of combination groups. Crossing-over rule. Linear arrangement of genes in chromosomes.
Didn’t attend Nobel award ceremony, because in Caltech, busy establishing new physiology group and with future of biochemistry, genetics.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
Physician - Anatomic Pathologist, Father of Immunology. ABO Blood Groups, Rh Typing. Paroxysmal Haemoglobinuria. Polio. Spirochaetes. Chemistry into service of serology. Meticulous observation, description, understanding in many fields.
Rigorously demanding of himself. Energetic. By nature somewhat pessimistic, preferred to live away from people.
Characteristic of him - died pipette in hand.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Atomic Physicist. Molecular Diffraction of Light. Raman Effect. Structure, optical behaviour of iridescent substances. Acoustics, violin.
Raman lost Nobel Prize money to fraudulent financer. Meeting fraudster years later, he said: You deserve Nobel Prize for your cunning in duping Nobel Laureate!
Playful comment: Unfortunately Economics Nobel instituted later in 1969!
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927
Co-nobelist C.T.R. Wilson
The Nobel Peace Prize 1927
Nobel co-recipient Ferdinand Buisson
Historian. Member, German Parliament. Professor, Berlin University
"…Kant found the only assurance for peace in the idea that war would become so terrible and unbearable that human beings, even though they remain as morally weak as they now are, would be forced to work together for peace…"
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927
Philosopher, Essayist wrote in French. Rich and vitalizing ideas and brilliant skill in presentation. President, Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of League of Nations.
Philosophical system demonstrating Nobel's idea of acknowledging with his Prizes, not human deeds but new ideas revealed through select personalities. Regain for man's consciousness the divine gift of intuition and to put reason in its proper place: serving and controlling ideas.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926
Italian writer. Idealistically inspired writings picture life with clarity. With depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general. Criticize moral norms and social values, but not criticize people who are victims of circumstances. Pet crow.
Constant faith in humankind and in God
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925
Co-nobelist Gustav Hertz
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Nobel Co-recipient Archibald V. Hill
Physician. Energy conversions in muscle. Fine experimenter, Physiological Chemist.
Science should know no national barriers and prejudices. Scientists should pour oil smoothing real wisdom and rational self-reflection in agitated waves of national passions of people. This ethos of objectivity causes mutual understanding among nations. Consider all Nobel Prizes, 'Peace' Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922
Spanish dramatist. In happy manner he continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama. Chiefly writer of comedies of manners and of one-act farces. Upon pediatrician father, at death, leaving comfortable income, he abandoned law studies.
"You meet the warrior when in battle but it is not until victory that you meet the gentleman".
The Nobel Peace Prize 1922
Zoologist - Neuroscientist, Polar Explorer, Oceanographer, Humanitarian. 'Nansen Passports' for stateless refugees. Despite Russia then being suspect in Western nations, relief for 7,000,000 to 22,000,000 Russians dying of famine.
Ministered to refugees - methods became classic: custodial care, repatriation, rehabilitation, resettlement, emigration, integration.
Love of mankind is politics in practice.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921
Novelist, storyteller; almost all genres. Nobility of style, profound human sympathy, true Gallic temperament. Historical fiction evokes past civilizations with great charm, deep insight.
Post-World War I. At Nobel ceremony Frenchman France turned to Nobelist, German Nernst, exchanged a long and cordial handshake with him - a profoundly symbolic gesture.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920
Norwegian writer. In youth, poverty stricken. Little formal education. Leader of Neo-Romantic revolt. Promoted individualism. Exciting description of nature.
"I sat looking at her with rapt attention. What a wonderful pleasure to be sitting in a human dwelling again, and talk with a lively young girl instead of with myself!"
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916
Swedish Poet, Writer. New era in Swedish literature. Perspectives to inner life. Love for ancestral hearth and for home of one's birth most strongly links man to life.
"O Man, you will become wise only when you reach the summit of the evening-cool heights where all the earth is beheld"
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Indian Poet, Bangali, English. All literary genres. Voice of India's Spiritual Heritage. Social reformer. Promoted gender equality, empowerment of women. Indian National Movement participant. Mahathma Gandhi was his devoted friend. Founder, school in Shantiniketan. Author, National Anthem of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.
"Love does not claim possession, but gives freedom."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1913
Lawyer, Socialist, Parliamentarian, Peace Activist. International Peace Bureau. Internationalism, "An Intellectual Parliament" for Humanity. Cofounder, Institut international de bibliographie. Education. Women's rights. Labor. Cultural achievements.
When Germany invaded Belgium, 1914, "Peoples will be as before, the sheep sent to the slaughterhouses or to the meadows as it pleases the shepherds."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Nobel Co-recipient Tobias Asser
Publisher, Philosopher. Founder, Die Friedenswarte (peace publication). Permanent Court of Arbitration, Netherlands. Collaborator, Nobelist Bertha von Suttner. Propaganda for peace: war was proof of validity of pacifistic analysis of world politics.
War is not in itself a condition so much as the symptom of a condition, that of international anarchy.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911
Belgian writer in French. Lawyer. Many-sided literary activities. Dramatic works distinguished by a wealth of imagination. Poetic fancy. Reveals deep inspiration. Appeals to readers' own feelings, stimulates their imaginations.
When we lose one we love, our bitterest tears are called forth by the memory of hours when we loved not enough.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1910
German writer: drama, poetry, prose. World-renowned short stories. Idealism. Consummate artistry permeated with idealism. Philology. Doctorate for dissertation on the refrain in Provençal poetry. Nobleman.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909
Author. Lofty idealism, vivid imagination. Described peasant life, Nordic nature accompanied by ethical strength, deep religious feeling. Respect for Nature, Women's Causes. 1914, became member of the Swedish Academy which awards Nobel Prize for Literature.
"Nothing on earth can make up for the loss of one who has loved you."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1908
Nobel Co-recipient Fredrik Bajer
Parliamentarian, writer. Founder, Swedish Peace and Arbitration League. Inspiring orator.
Without peace there is no freedom, individual or national. War and hostilities are a form of slavery. Under such conditions, laws are silent. Without peace there is nothing truly human. Peace is harmony. Harmony is the highest ideal of life.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908
Idealism raises our life to greatness above the hubbub of everyday life by representation of eternal truths; in midst of our dark situation it can strengthen our belief in reason of life. Only faith can enable us to cope with enormous obstacles, fill us with confidence of success.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel Co-recipient Paul Ehrlich
Ukrainian Zoologist. Theory of cellular immunity. Father of Natural immunity. Research: Comparative embryology, Phagocytosis, Anthrax, Rabies.
Weak eyesight, heart troubles, difficulties in University lead to pessimism. Twice attempted suicide. Discovery of phagocytosis completely changed his outlook on life; abandoned his pessimistic philosophy and determined to find further proof of hypothesis.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel co-recipient Ilya Mechnikov
Physician, Scientist. Immunologist, Hematologist, A Founder of Chemotherapy. Stained tissues & classified stains: basic, acid, neutral. Stained granules in blood cells; pioneer in Hematology. Stained tubercle bacillus. Standardized sera. Idea: existence of relation of chemical constitution of drugs to mode of action & affinity for cells against which they are directed.
"Schwann established the cell as the final biological unit. Biology owes its immeasurable progress to the introduction of this concept of the cell. This concept is the axis around which the whole of modern science of life revolves"
The Nobel Peace Prize 1907
Nobel Co-recipient Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
'Oracle of International Law'. Practical Promoter of Peace. Teacher, judge, diplomat. International: private law, transport, military aviation, naval affairs, commercial paper used in international transactions.
Jurists, journalists can pave way for reform of nefarious practices, influencing nation to give up barbaric measures which its government has been unwilling to renounce.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906
Nobel Co-recipient Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
Poet, Senator. Wrote poetry as child. Excellent translator, literary historian, orator. Conducted research in every phase of literature and eloquently expressed his findings. Poetry inspired compatriots in war for Italian independence, enjoyed immense popularity at home and abroad. Greatest Italian literary figure in the latter part of the nineteenth century.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
President, USA. International Peace Arbitrator, various treaties. Vigorous, businesslike. "We abhor bully, oppressor, in private or public life". Conservationist, protected 230,000,000 acres of public land.
After camping in Yosemite National Park, "It was like lying in a great solemn cathedral, far vaster and more beautiful than any built by man."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1905
Generalissimo, Peace Movement. Author, 'Lay Down Your Arms'. Permanent International Peace Bureau. Vigorously opposed militaristic traditions. Eternal truth: happiness created, developed in peace. Eternal right: individual's right to live.
"Inform me, convince me, and then I will do something great for the movement", Alfred Nobel said to Bertha von Suttner."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Doctor. Founder of phototherapy in dermatology. Contributed to treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation. Researched effects of salt. Despite having Niemann-Pick disease, strong willed, persevering.
Early education in Denmark - Rector: "Niels is a very nice boy, but his gifts are small and he is quite devoid of energy." This may have been due to fagging for older pupils. Moved to school in Iceland; succeeded despite initially not knowing language.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1903
Co-founder, Inter-Parliamentary Union. Secretary, International Arbitration League. British Parliamentarian. World organizing. Prevent war. Founder, Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners.
Upon entering into treaties of arbitration, the disputants would have time for reflection, for while arbitrators were deliberating, passions of contending parties would cool and chances of war greatly diminished.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Nobel co-recipient Albert Gobat
Permanent International Peace Bureau [1910 Nobel Peace Prize]. Nobelist Passy's description: "exactitude, firmness." History Demonstrates War's Futility. Predicted, 1901: Despite modern weapons' destructiveness, wars will ebb, flow. Alfred Nobel's Contemporary.
Nobel Chairperson Løvland, "You Swiss, with your sense of life's realities, have special gift for taking ideas from realm of dreams and turning them into realities."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Alfred Nobel's contemporary. Apostle of Peace, Humanitarian, Economist, Lawyer, Politician. Founder, French peace society. Free trade between independent nations promotes peace. Inspired by Nobelist Randal Cremer.
Opposed France's colonial policy. 1905 Sweden-Norway conflict, declared, '…peaceful solution will make me hundred times happier than when I received Nobel Prize…' Wish fulfilled.
Discover Your Abilities and Aspirations!
$10 $25 $50 $100 Other
Tax Exempt 501(c)3 Non-Profit Organization