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Great • Alfred • Nobel • Gives • Aspiration
Prize Winners' Ideas & Thought Processes!

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Alfred Nobel
Photo: Nobelprize.org

Alfred Nobel

Chemist, Inventor, Awesome Administrator, Social Reformer.

"It could and should soon come to pass that all states pledge themselves collectively to attack an aggressor. That would make war impossible, and would force even the most brutal and unreasonable Power to appeal to a court of arbitration, or else keep quiet."

Please do use your discretion. Videos by Nobel Prize authorities and those in which the Laureates themselves speak are fine. Regarding other videos please accept truthful info and disregard the rest.

Alfred Nobel
Nobel Prize Announcement
Nobel Prize Lectures
Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
Nobel Prize Ceremony
Nobel Banquet speech
Nobel Laureates
Nobel Prize

Fama

Photo: © Nobel Foundation

Eugene F. Fama Ph.D., MBA

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economics Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013
Nobel co-recipients Lars Peter Hansen, Robert J. Shiller

Economist. Empirical analysis of asset prices. Influenced development of index funds. Father of modern finance. Idea is 'how do you measure risk?' Windsurfing, golf, opera.

In University of Chicago - Economics. Environment so productive. "We have good people, you need that; very interactive environment; people help one another out a lot. I couldn't do what I did without the help of my professors, colleagues and students. Everybody contributes to everybody else."

Videos

Robert Lefkowitz

Photo: © Nobel Foundation

Robert J. Lefkowitz MD

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Nobel Prize shared with Brian K. Kobilka
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2007 USA

Physician- Cardiologist, Scientist. G-protein-coupled receptors; approximately half of all medicines used today use this kind of receptor.

"Strong family history of coronary artery disease ... at age 50 I had quadruple bypass surgery [1994]. I minimize my risk factors with daily physical exercise, a vegetarian diet and appropriate medications".

Videos

John Gurdon

Photo: courtesy Dr.Gurdon's Secretary Ms. Dilly Bradford, 24 Mar 2014.

Sir John B. Gurdon Kt DPhil DSc FRS

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka

Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.

At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.

`Know Thyself

Videos

Heck

Photo: Holger Motzkau/Wikimedia Commons

Richard F. Heck Ph.D.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Nobel co-recipients Ei-ichi Negishizz, Akira Suzuki

Physical organic chemist. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Sole author - 7 consecutive papers. Heck reaction: important concept, tool for organic and medicinal chemists; fuorescence labeling of DNA bases - sequencing DNA/Genome. Thinner computer screens in future. "Great art in test tube."

Growing orchids in early teens lead to passion for chemistry.

Videos

Oliver Williamson

Photo: Courtesy Dr.Williamson

Oliver E. Williamson Ph.D.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009
Nobel co-recipient Elinor Ostrom

Economist and Founding Editor of the Journal of Law, Economics and Organization. His book, The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting, is said to be the most frequently cited work in social science research.

Videos

Michkin

Photo: LN, NIMH

Mortimer Mishkin Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2009

Cognitive neuroscientist, Business Administrator. Brain/behavior relationships in humans, nonhuman primates. Identified … areas in cerebral cortex essential for perception and memory: cortico-limbic circuit responsible for memory of facts and events; cortico-striatal circuit responsible for learning of different types of habits and motor skills.

"Perseverance is built into the trait of curiosity, a scientist's motivation. If you're sufficiently curious, you're willing to continue despite failures and obstacles. It's so easy to give up."

Videos

Posner

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Michael I. Posner. Upon receiving Carty award 2012.

Michael I. Posner Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2008

Psychologist. Cognitive neuroscience - attention, early brain development, changes in brain systems with learning; developmental disorders; brain injury. Posner cueing task. Founding Director, Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology.

Videos

Capecchi

Photo: © Nobel Foundation

Mario R. Capecchi Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Nobel prize also awarded to Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Molecular Geneticist. Introduced specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells. Gene Targeting, Homeobox Genes, Development, Behavior.

Mother incarcerated as political prisoner, Germany. "At age 4½, I set off on my own, living in streets, orphanages; joining gangs of homeless children; generally hungry. Vivid recollections, brutal beyond description."

Videos

JohnMather

Photo: National Air and Space Administration, Courtesy: John C. Mather

John C. Mather Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
Nobel Prize also awarded to George F. Smoot

Physicist - Astrophysics, Instrumentation. COBE, Blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

"For years I had successfully repelled all challenges to my concentration on one overwhelming responsibility. Now, it was done, and I switched my attention to ..."

Videos

Aumann

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Robert J. Aumann

Robert J. Aumann Ph.D.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005
Nobel co-recipient Thomas C. Schelling

Mathematician. Game Theory. Interest: Talmud.

"Science is exploration for the sake of exploration."

Videos


Photo: Courtesy Dr. Gordon Bower

Gordon H. Bower Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Behavior and Social Science 2005

"Psychologist, Cognitive-Social. Human memory, mnemonic devices, retrieval strategies, recording strategies, category learning. Cognitive processes, emotion, imagery, language and reading comprehension as they relate to memory. Mathematical Models, Computer Simulation of Memory, Behavior Modification."

Videos

Lauterbur
Photo: Wikipedia Commons

Paul C. Lauterbur Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988

Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.

"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."

Videos

Vernon Smith

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Vernon Smith

Vernon L. Smith BSEE, Ph.D.[Economics]

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002
Nobel co-recipient Daniel Kahneman

Electrical Engineer, Experimental Economist. Founder, International Foundation for Research in Experimental Economics; Founder Economic Science Institute at Chapman University.

"... If I am ever reborn, I hope to be a madman yet again ..."

Videos

Vernon Smith

Photo: Courtesy Evelyn M. Witkin

Evelyn Maisel Witkin Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Biological Science 2002

Zoologist - Molecular Geneticist. E. coli. DNA mutagenesis and DNA repair. Interests: Science education in public schools; Connections between contemporary Victorians poet Robert Browning and Charles Darwin.

Essentially same grant from 1956 until retirement in 1991.

Videos

Wolfgang Ketterle

Photo: Courtesy Dr.Wolfgang Ketterle

Wolfgang Ketterle Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Nobel co-recipients Eric A. Cornell, Carl E. Wieman

Physicist - Atomic Physics. Hobbies: Running, Bicycling.

"...the quest for pure knowledge and the pursuit of goals which are only vaguely defined and change as the research progresses... I didn't anticipate that the best was still to come".

Videos

Likens

Photo: Courtesy Gene Elden Likens

Gene Likens Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Zoologist. Ecosystem ecology, biogeochemistry, acid rain, human impacts on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Linked fossil fuel combustion to acid rain. Founder, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Audio/Visual

Likens

Photo: Courtesy Nancy C. Andreason

Nancy Andreason M.D.,Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2000

Psychiatrist, Litterateur. Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience, Genomics, Neuroimaging, Neuroscience of Creativity, Schizophrenia. Writes books to educate laity and reduce stigma. Founding Chair, Neuroscience Section, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Creative people tend to be very persistent, even when confronted with skepticism or rejection.

Audio/Visual

Yau

Photo: NIST

William D. Phillips Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Nobel co-recipients Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

Physicist. Development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. Think about physics intuitively. Open, lively discussion of physics problems. Do physics at frontiers competitively with openness, humanity, cooperation. Excellent teacher. Religious.

"No prize can compare in importance to family and friends I count as my greatest treasures".

Videos

Yau

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Shing-Tung Yau

Shing-Tung Yau Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Mathematics and Computer Science 1997

Mathematician. Differential geometry, Differential equations, General relativity. Calabi-Yau manifolds. Miyaoka-Yau inequality. Founder: Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong; Morningside Center of Mathematics at Academia Sinica; Center of Mathematical Sciences at Zhejiang University; Tsinghua Mathematical Sciences Center, China. Adviser more than 50 doctoral students.

Family fled mainland China and Communist takeover when he was an infant. Leader of street gang and often skipped school.

Shing-Tung Yau

Harsanyl

Drawing: Ami Mowris

John C. Harsanyi Ph.D.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994
Co-Nobelists: John F. Nash Jr., Reinhard Selten

Economist. Contributed to developing game theory. Hungarian-American.

Videos

Elion

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Gertrude B. Elion M.S.[Chemisty]

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991

Chemist, Pharmacologist. Discovered principles for drug treatment; developed drugs - anticancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-gout, anti-malarial. Purines.

"I was a child with an insatiable thirst for knowledge. My beloved grandfather died of cancer when I was 15. I was highly motivated to discover a cure for this terrible disease".

Videos

Lehn

Photo: Jean-Marie Lehn after a lecture at ETH Zurich, 2012, Wikimedia Commons

Jean-Marie Lehn Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Nobel co-recepients Donald J. Cram, Charles J. Pedersen

Chemist. Interests: Supramolecular chemistry, Self-assembly and self-organization, Constitutional dynamic chemistry; Music, Philosophy.

Founding director, 'Chemistry, a European Journal'. Gave starting impetus to other European journals, rare manifestation of European spirit and supranationality bridging historical divides!

President, International Organization for Chemical Sciences in Development, helping chemists in developing countries.

Videos

Freedman

Photo: Courtesy Michael H. Freedman

Michael H. Freedman Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Mathematics and Computer Science 1987

American mathematician. Proof of Poincare Conjecture in dimension four. One of the greatest achievements in mathematics in this century. Fields Medal, 1986.

Videos

Nadine

Gordimer at the Göteborg Book Fair, 2010. Photo: Bengt Oberger.

Nadine Gordimer

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991

Writer, illustrated consequences of apartheid. For fifty years the 'Geiger Counter of Apartheid.

"My answer is: Recognize yourself in others"." A child understands fear, and the hurt and hate it brings". "Time is change; we measure its passing by how much things alter".

Videos

Varmus

Photo: NIH

Harold Varmus M.D.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Nobel Prize shared by J. Michael Bishop
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Physician, Scientist, Litterateur. Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Co-founder, Public Library of Science Journals. Initiated doubling NIH budget. Interests: cycling, rowing.

'Unflappable Varmus'

Videos

Stigler

Drawing: Ami Mowris

George J. Stigler Ph.D., M.B.A.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982
The President's National Medal of Science - Behavior and Social Science 1987

Economist - industrial organization. 'Seminal studies of industrial structures; functioning of markets; causes, effects of public regulation.' Great teacher. Writings easy to admire, joy to read, impossible to imitate. Interest: many areas of economics; history of economics. Very Humorous.

Chicago Economics Department intellectual ferment - intense intellectual atmosphere; captivated him.

Videos

Varmus

Drawing: Newton Llorente

Herbert C Brown Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
The President's National Medel of Sciences - Physical Sciences, 1969

Organic Chemist. Development of use of boron into important reagents in organic synthesis. School, advanced several times, graduating at 12; refused further advancement, avoiding being sister's classmate.

Graduating, Depression years, future wife Sarah gave him gift, Stock's 'Hydrides of Boron and Silicon' because cheapest chemistry book! Led to Nobel Prize!

Videos

Hartline

Sketch: Newton Llorente

Haldan K. Hartline Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Nobel co-recipients Ragnar Granit, George Wald

Physician, Biophysicist. Physiological and chemical visual processes in eye.

"Vision itself is a dynamic process. There is little in the world that stands still, at least not as imaged in our retinas, for our eyes are always moving. The visual system is almost exclusively organized to detect change and motion."

Videos

Bekesy

Drawing by Newton Llorente

Georg von Békésy Ph.D. [Physics]

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Physicist, Communication engineer. Psychophysiology of hearing. Physical mechanism of stimulation within cochlea, a frequency analyzer. Accidental selection of science field. Technically skillful, elegant experimental design. He nuisance to autopsy room, mechanical workshops.

"Found inner ear beautiful under stereoscopic microscope. It was pleasure of beauty that made me stick to ear."

Videos

Richards

Photo: U.S. National Library of Medicine

Dickinson W. Richards Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
Co-Nobilists André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann

Physician, gentle clinician, cardiovascular physiologist. "Discoveries concerning heart catheterization, pathological changes in circulatory system." Diagnosing congenital heart diseases; chronic cardiac, pulmonary diseases; traumatic shock.

"Man's potentiality, or these days his survival, will depend on his conscience, more specifically, ability of leaders and followers to change character, into more merciful beings."

Videos

Waksman

Drawing: Newton Llorente

Selman A. Waksman

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Ukrainian-born American Microbiologist, Biochemist. Isolated several antibiotics including Streptomycin for Tuberculosis and Neomycin. Proceeds earned from patents funded Waksman Institute of Microbiology and Waksman Foundation for Microbiology.

"The Lord hath created medicines out of the earth; and he that is wise will not abhor them. Ecclesiasticus, XXXVIII , 4"

Videos

Glenn Seaborg

Photo: 1964. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Glenn T. Seaborg Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Nobel Prize also awarded to Edwin M. McMillan
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991

Nuclear Chemist. Transuranium - Plutonium. Isotopes identification. Actinide concept. Atomic Bomb. Peaceful use of atomic energy. Advisor to 10 US Presidents. Swedish ancestry. Journal since age 8 yrs. Hiking.

Franck Report: "I had joined a committee of scientists who advocated the use of the atomic bomb for demonstration purposes. We hoped the enemy would see the destructive power of this weapon and immediately surrender. In June, 1945, we attempted to deliver our plan, the Franck Report, to President Truman. I don't know if he ever saw our work..."

Videos

Glenn Seaborg

Photo: Wikipedia commons

Mahathma Gandhi

'Missing Laureate' 1948 [Nobel Peace Prize]

Hero to innumerable peace activists including Nobelists: Martin Luther King Jr., Pérez Esquivel, Dalai Lama, Suu Kyi, Nelson Mandela.

1948, Nobel Committee diplomatically declared, "no suitable living candidate".

Geir Lundestad, Secretary, Norwegian Nobel Committee, 2006: Gandhi could do without Nobel, whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question.

Videos

Gasser

Drawing by Newton Llorente

Herbert S. Gasser

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Co-Nobelist Joseph Erlanger

Physician, Electrophysiologist, Pharmacologist. Discovered differentiated functions of single nerve fibers. Two types of nerve fibers with different thicknesses; thicker fibers convey nerve impulses fast.

Two times for working on a problem - before anyone has thought of it and after everyone else has left it - result: innovator or finalist.

Videos

Landsteiner

Drawing by Newton llorente

Karl Landsteiner

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Physician - Anatomic Pathologist, Father of Immunology. ABO Blood Groups, Rh Typing. Paroxysmal Haemoglobinuria. Polio. Spirochaetes. Chemistry into service of serology. Meticulous observation, description, understanding in many fields.

Rigorously demanding of himself. Energetic. By nature somewhat pessimistic, preferred to live away from people.
Characteristic of him - died pipette in hand.

Videos

Landsteiner

Drawing: Newton Llorente

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman M.A. [Physics]

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

Atomic Physicist. Molecular Diffraction of Light. Raman Effect. Structure, optical behaviour of iridescent substances. Acoustics, violin.

Raman lost Nobel Prize money to fraudulent financer. Meeting fraudster years later, he said: You deserve Nobel Prize for your cunning in duping Nobel Laureate!

Playful comment: Unfortunately Economics Nobel instituted later in 1969!

Videos

Bergson

Photo: Nobelprize.org

Henri Bergson

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927

Philosopher, Essayist wrote in French. Rich and vitalizing ideas and brilliant skill in presentation. President, Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of League of Nations.

Philosophical system demonstrating Nobel's idea of acknowledging with his Prizes, not human deeds but new ideas revealed through select personalities. Regain for man's consciousness the divine gift of intuition and to put reason in its proper place: serving and controlling ideas.

Videos
Audio

France

Photo: Nobelprize.org

Anatole France

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921

Novelist, storyteller; almost all genres. Nobility of style, profound human sympathy, true Gallic temperament. Historical fiction evokes past civilizations with great charm, deep insight.

Post-World War I. At Nobel ceremony Frenchman France turned to Nobelist, German Nernst, exchanged a long and cordial handshake with him - a profoundly symbolic gesture.

Videos

Hamsun

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Knut Pedersen Hamsun

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920

Norwegian writer. In youth, poverty stricken. Little formal education. Leader of Neo-Romantic revolt. Promoted individualism. Exciting description of nature.

"I sat looking at her with rapt attention. What a wonderful pleasure to be sitting in a human dwelling again, and talk with a lively young girl instead of with myself!"

Videos

Heidenstam

Photo: nobelprize.org

Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916

Swedish Poet, Writer. New era in Swedish literature. Perspectives to inner life. Love for ancestral hearth and for home of one's birth most strongly links man to life.

"O Man, you will become wise only when you reach the summit of the evening-cool heights where all the earth is beheld"

Videos

Tagore

Photo: Nobelprize.org

Rabindranath Tagore

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913

Indian Poet, Bangali, English. All literary genres. Voice of India's Spiritual Heritage. Social reformer. Promoted gender equality, empowerment of women. Indian National Movement participant. Mahathma Gandhi was his devoted friend. Founder, school in Shantiniketan. Author, National Anthem of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.

"Love does not claim possession, but gives freedom."

Audio/videos

France

Photo: nobelprize.org

Henri La Fontaine

The Nobel Peace Prize 1913

Lawyer, Socialist, Parliamentarian, Peace Activist. International Peace Bureau. Internationalism, "An Intellectual Parliament" for Humanity. Cofounder, Institut international de bibliographie. Education. Women's rights. Labor. Cultural achievements.

When Germany invaded Belgium, 1914, "Peoples will be as before, the sheep sent to the slaughterhouses or to the meadows as it pleases the shepherds."

Videos

France

Photo: nobelprize.org

Alfred Fried

The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Nobel Co-recipient Tobias Asser

Publisher, Philosopher. Founder, Die Friedenswarte (peace publication). Permanent Court of Arbitration, Netherlands. Collaborator, Nobelist Bertha von Suttner. Propaganda for peace: war was proof of validity of pacifistic analysis of world politics.

War is not in itself a condition so much as the symptom of a condition, that of international anarchy.

Videos

France

Photo: nobelprize.org

Count Maurice (Mooris) Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911

Belgian writer in French. Lawyer. Many-sided literary activities. Dramatic works distinguished by a wealth of imagination. Poetic fancy. Reveals deep inspiration. Appeals to readers' own feelings, stimulates their imaginations.

When we lose one we love, our bitterest tears are called forth by the memory of hours when we loved not enough.

Videos
Films

France

Photo: nobelprize.org

Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1910

German writer: drama, poetry, prose. World-renowned short stories. Idealism. Consummate artistry permeated with idealism. Philology. Doctorate for dissertation on the refrain in Provençal poetry. Nobleman.

Audio

Lagerof

Photo: nobelprize.org

Selma Ottolia Lovisa Lagerlöf

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909

Author. Lofty idealism, vivid imagination. Described peasant life, Nordic nature accompanied by ethical strength, deep religious feeling. Respect for Nature, Women's Causes. 1914, became member of the Swedish Academy which awards Nobel Prize for Literature.

"Nothing on earth can make up for the loss of one who has loved you."

Videos

France

Photo: Library of Congress

Rudolf Christoph Eucken

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908

Writer, Philosopher.

Idealism raises our life to greatness above the hubbub of everyday life by representation of eternal truths; in midst of our dark situation it can strengthen our belief in reason of life. Only faith can enable us to cope with enormous obstacles, fill us with confidence of success.

Videos

Roosevelt

Photo: Library of Congress

Theodore Roosevelt

The Nobel Peace Prize 1906

President, USA. International Peace Arbitrator, various treaties. Vigorous, businesslike. "We abhor bully, oppressor, in private or public life". Conservationist, protected 230,000,000 acres of public land.

After camping in Yosemite National Park, "It was like lying in a great solemn cathedral, far vaster and more beautiful than any built by man."

Video/Films

France

Photo: Wikiphedia

Giosuè Carducci

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906
Nobel Co-recipient Ernesto Teodoro Moneta

Poet, Senator. Wrote poetry as child. Excellent translator, literary historian, orator. Conducted research in every phase of literature and eloquently expressed his findings. Poetry inspired compatriots in war for Italian independence, enjoyed immense popularity at home and abroad. Greatest Italian literary figure in the latter part of the nineteenth century.

Videos

France

Photo: nobelprize.org

Niels Ryberg Finsen M.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Doctor. Founder of phototherapy in dermatology. Contributed to treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation. Researched effects of salt. Despite having Niemann-Pick disease, strong willed, persevering.

Early education in Denmark - Rector: "Niels is a very nice boy, but his gifts are small and he is quite devoid of energy." This may have been due to fagging for older pupils. Moved to school in Iceland; succeeded despite initially not knowing language.

Audio

“One comes to be of just such stuff as that on which the mind is set” - Maithri Upanishath, VI.34:3

“…the peace that is found in libraries and laboratories…” - Louis Pasteur
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