What Nobelists do with their Nobel Prize Medal and Cash and their Philanthropy
Chemist, Inventor, Awesome Administrator, Social Reformer.
"It could and should soon come to pass that all states pledge themselves collectively to attack an aggressor. That would make war impossible, and would force even the most brutal and unreasonable Power to appeal to a court of arbitration, or else keep quiet."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economics Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013
Nobel co-recipients Lars Peter Hansen, Robert J. Shiller
Economist. Empirical analysis of asset prices. Influenced development of index funds. Father of modern finance. Idea is 'how do you measure risk?' Windsurfing, golf, opera.
In University of Chicago - Economics. Environment so productive. "We have good people, you need that; very interactive environment; people help one another out a lot. I couldn't do what I did without the help of my professors, colleagues and students. Everybody contributes to everybody else."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka
Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.
At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.
Organic Chemist. Inventor of organozinc variant of the palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Read voraciously including "how to …" publications. Dreamt of Nobel half century prior to being awarded prize. Upon arriving in US and discovering Nobelists visiting UPenn, realized that being awarded the Nobel could happen to anybody including himself.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
Nobel Prize also awarded to George F. Smoot
Physicist - Astrophysics, Instrumentation. COBE, Blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
"For years I had successfully repelled all challenges to my concentration on one overwhelming responsibility. Now, it was done, and I switched my attention to ..."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
Co Nobelists Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion
Chemist, Pharmacologist. Discovered principles for drug treatment; developed drugs - anticancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-gout, anti-malarial. Purines. 6-mercaptopurine, Imuran,
allopurinol, pyramethamine, trimethoprim, Acyclovir.
“My greatest satisfaction … save lives, relieve suffering. At baptism, my father dedicated my life to service of mankind. Very proud … able to fulfill his hopes.”
Physician, Scientist - Immunologist, teacher, remarkable leader. Discovered genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.
“Baruj did not always get on well with those in authority, often because he felt he could do their jobs so much better than they did …”
The Nobel Peace Prize 1980
Human Rights Leader, Architect, Sculptor. Believed in nonviolence. Fought for indigenous peoples.
“It is essential to have inner peace and the serenity of prayer to listen to the silence of God, which speaks to us, in our personal life and the history of our times, of the power of love.”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Co-nobelist Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz
Biologist - Ornithologist. Discovered ‘organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns’. Sticklebacks fish. Bee wolf, a digger wasp, Philanthus Triangulum. Adventurous. Elder brother Jan Tinbergen is Economics Nobelist, 1969, the first year the Economics prize was awarded. Both awarded at age 66yrs.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
Nobel co-recipients: H. Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg
Organic Chemist. 'Interpreted genetic code and its function in protein synthesis' First chemical synthesis of penicillin. Research: amino acids, peptides, protein biosynthesis. Discovered and isolated tRNA [transfer RNA] - alanine transfer RNA.
The Nobel Prize in Physiciogy or Medecine 1962
The Presidents's National Medal of Sciences - Biological Sciences 1997
Co-Nobelists Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins
Zoologist. ‘Discovered molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.’
Very generous with subordinates regarding authorship of articles.
“Good science is difficult. We must believe strongly in our ideas.”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
Physicist, Communication engineer. Psychophysiology of hearing. Physical mechanism of stimulation within cochlea, a frequency analyzer. Accidental selection of science field. Technically skillful, elegant experimental design. He nuisance to autopsy room, mechanical workshops.
"Found inner ear beautiful under stereoscopic microscope. It was pleasure of beauty that made me stick to ear."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Co-Nobelists Fritz Lipmann
Physician, Biochemist. Discovered citric acid cycle in which nutrients are converted to chemical energy molecules which are converted to ATP used in chemical processes. Krebs-Henseleit cycle.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Co-Nobelists: Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey
Physician - Bacteriologist, Immunologist. While researching Influenza virus, made ground breaking discovery: penicillin, by not neglecting chance observation - mould contaminating culture plate. WWI caused interest in Antiseptics. WWII, production cost was immaterial. Destiny.
Lone worker gets idea; details developed by team, but prime idea is due to enterprise, thought, perception of an individual.
Alexander Fleming's Nobel Prize medal is in the National Museums of Scotland.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
Co-Nobalists George R. Minot, William P. Murphy
Physician; Pathologist. Pernicious anaemia liver therapy. Whipple Disease. Intestinal parasites. Blackwater fever. WWII, Chloroform anesthesia induced liver necrosis. Liver regeneration. Tuberculosis. Pancreatitis. Used Nobelists Joliot Curie’s, Fermi’s, E.O. Lawrence’s radioactive isotopes; discovered iron metabolism; protein metabolism, distribution, functions. Bile constituents. Red cell stroma.
Gentle. Quiet. Wanted to be remembered as teacher.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933
Zoologist, Geneticist. Chromosome role in heredity, sex determination. Drosophila. Genes stored in chromosomes in nuclei. Epigenetics. Combination rule. Limited number of combination groups. Crossing-over rule. Linear arrangement of genes in chromosomes.
Didn’t attend Nobel award ceremony, because in Caltech, busy establishing new physiology group and with future of biochemistry, genetics.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Atomic Physicist. Molecular Diffraction of Light. Raman Effect. Structure, optical behaviour of iridescent substances. Acoustics, violin.
Raman lost Nobel Prize money to fraudulent financer. Meeting fraudster years later, he said: You deserve Nobel Prize for your cunning in duping Nobel Laureate!
Playful comment: Unfortunately Economics Nobel instituted later in 1969!
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924
Physician, Physiologist. Discovered electrocardiogram [EKG/ECG] mechanism. It was known that heart generates weak electrical current varying in health, heart disease. Invented galvanometer recording these currents. Named electrical waves P, Q, R, S, T. [P petite; next letters in alphabet]. Interests: Physics, Acoustics, Asthma, Optics, Physical activity. Great concentration. Generous, Kind.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
President, USA. International Peace Arbitrator, various treaties. Vigorous, businesslike. "We abhor bully, oppressor, in private or public life". Conservationist, protected 230,000,000 acres of public land.
After camping in Yosemite National Park, "It was like lying in a great solemn cathedral, far vaster and more beautiful than any built by man."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Physician. Founder, phototherapy in dermatology. Lupus vulgaris treatment. Researched salt. Despite having Niemann-Pick disease,
strong willed, persevering.
Denmark early education - Rector: "Niels is a very nice boy. His gifts are small; he’s devoid of energy." Cause: fagging for older pupils. Moved to Iceland school; succeeded despite not knowing language.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902
Physician. Mosquitoes’ malarial parasites life-cycle. Mathematical models for epidemiology. Malaria prevention. Contributed to pure, applied mathematics.
‘My microscope was worn out, screws rusted with sweat from hands, forehead; remaining eye-piece cracked; invaluable oil-immersion lens remained good.’
‘Dingy military hospital, cracked microscope, medicine bottles - only laboratory and apparatus I possessed.’
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901
Physician. Serum therapy, especially against diphtheria. Tuberculosis. Distinguished friends, associates: Friedrich Althoff, Prussian Under-Secretary, Education, Cultural Affairs; Ludolph Brauer, colleague, Internal Medicine, Marburg Medical Faculty; Friedrich Loeffler, bacteriologist; Ilya Mechnikov, 1908 Medicine Nobelist, Russian researcher, discovered phagocytosis, exchanged ideas; Émile Roux, Louis Pasteur’s pupil, researched diphtheria; Erich Wernicke, friend, colleague.
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