What Nobelists do with their Nobel Prize Medal and Cash and their Philanthropy
Chemist, Inventor, Awesome Administrator, Social Reformer.
"It could and should soon come to pass that all states pledge themselves collectively to attack an aggressor. That would make war impossible, and would force even the most brutal and unreasonable Power to appeal to a court of arbitration, or else keep quiet."
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economics Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013
Nobel co-recipients Lars Peter Hansen, Robert J. Shiller
Economist. Empirical analysis of asset prices. Influenced development of index funds. Father of modern finance. Idea is 'how do you measure risk?' Windsurfing, golf, opera.
In University of Chicago - Economics. Environment so productive. "We have good people, you need that; very interactive environment; people help one another out a lot. I couldn't do what I did without the help of my professors, colleagues and students. Everybody contributes to everybody else."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka
Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.
At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.
Organic Chemist. Inventor of organozinc variant of the palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Read voraciously including "how to …" publications. Dreamt of Nobel half century prior to being awarded prize. Upon arriving in US and discovering Nobelists visiting UPenn, realized that being awarded the Nobel could happen to anybody including himself.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
Nobel Prize also awarded to George F. Smoot
Physicist - Astrophysics, Instrumentation. COBE, Blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
"For years I had successfully repelled all challenges to my concentration on one overwhelming responsibility. Now, it was done, and I switched my attention to ..."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
Physicist, Communication engineer. Psychophysiology of hearing. Physical mechanism of stimulation within cochlea, a frequency analyzer. Accidental selection of science field. Technically skillful, elegant experimental design. He nuisance to autopsy room, mechanical workshops.
"Found inner ear beautiful under stereoscopic microscope. It was pleasure of beauty that made me stick to ear."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
Co-Nobalists George R. Minot, William P. Murphy
Physician; Pathologist. Pernicious anaemia liver therapy. Whipple Disease. Intestinal parasites. Blackwater fever. WWII, Chloroform anesthesia induced liver necrosis. Liver regeneration. Tuberculosis. Pancreatitis. Used Nobelists Joliot Curie’s, Fermi’s, E.O. Lawrence’s radioactive isotopes; discovered iron metabolism; protein metabolism, distribution, functions. Bile constituents. Red cell stroma.
Gentle. Quiet. Wanted to be remembered as teacher.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933
Zoologist, Geneticist. Chromosome role in heredity, sex determination. Drosophila. Genes stored in chromosomes in nuclei. Epigenetics. Combination rule. Limited number of combination groups. Crossing-over rule. Linear arrangement of genes in chromosomes.
Didn’t attend Nobel award ceremony, because in Caltech, busy establishing new physiology group and with future of biochemistry, genetics.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Atomic Physicist. Molecular Diffraction of Light. Raman Effect. Structure, optical behaviour of iridescent substances. Acoustics, violin.
Raman lost Nobel Prize money to fraudulent financer. Meeting fraudster years later, he said: You deserve Nobel Prize for your cunning in duping Nobel Laureate!
Playful comment: Unfortunately Economics Nobel instituted later in 1969!
The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
President, USA. International Peace Arbitrator, various treaties. Vigorous, businesslike. "We abhor bully, oppressor, in private or public life". Conservationist, protected 230,000,000 acres of public land.
After camping in Yosemite National Park, "It was like lying in a great solemn cathedral, far vaster and more beautiful than any built by man."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Doctor. Founder of phototherapy in dermatology. Contributed to treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation. Researched effects of salt. Despite having Niemann-Pick disease, strong willed, persevering.
Early education in Denmark - Rector: "Niels is a very nice boy, but his gifts are small and he is quite devoid of energy." This may have been due to fagging for older pupils. Moved to school in Iceland; succeeded despite initially not knowing language.
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