The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka
Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.
At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.
Molecular Geneticist. Introduced specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells. Gene Targeting, Homeobox Genes, Development, Behavior.
Mother incarcerated as political prisoner, Germany. "At age 4½, I set off on my own, living in streets, orphanages; joining gangs of homeless children; generally hungry. Vivid recollections, brutal beyond description."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988
Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.
"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."
Molecular & Medical Pharmacologist
While testifying before Congress in 2000, Ignarro remarked: "Only in America could the son of an uneducated carpenter receive the Nobel Prize in Medicine."
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Nobel Prize shared by J. Michael Bishop
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001
Physician, Scientist, Litterateur. Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Co-founder, Public Library of Science Journals. Initiated doubling NIH budget. Interests: cycling, rowing.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983
The President's National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1970
Cytogeneticist. Mobile genetic elements, 1948. Nobel after 35 years. Skilled experimentalist, master cytological detail interpreter, brilliant theoretician. Solo labor, no technical help. Friendly fellow scientists. Discriminated as woman.
"Tacit assumptions - substance of dogma - served as barrier to effective communication. My understanding of phenomenon was too radical for time."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Nobel co-recipients David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel
The President's National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1989
Psychologist, Philosopher, Zoologist, Neuroanatomist. Functional specialization of cerebral hemispheres. Split-brain studies. Duality of consciousness. Mind and consciousness. High ethical standards. Authorship generosity.
Ralph Gerard, "I know of nobody else who has disposed of cherished ideas of his doctoral and postdoctoral sponsors, at that time the acknowledged leaders in their fields."
Geneticist, Transplantation Immunologist. Genetically determined structures on cell surface that regulate immunological reactions, the major histocompatibility complex, HLA. Thesis work on linkage in mice largely determined future work. Interest: social evolution.
"In examining histocompatibility genetics as one of several potential new undertakings, I thought I saw possibilities for new openings."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993
Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.
"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Nobel Prize also awarded to Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
National Medal of Science-Biological Sciences 1976 USA
Physician, Physiologist, Neuroendocrinologist. Peptide hormone production of brain. Visual Artist.
Alfred Nobel chose to associate Literature and Science in his legacy. The mission, role and responsibility to society of a scientist and an artist are the same.
Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.
How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.
National Medal of Science Science - Biological Sciences 1973
Plant Physiologist. Photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation. Child prodigy. Post-Sputnik national committee. Wrote four chapters on evolution of life processes in "Blue Series"
high-school biology textbook, widely translated, nationally acclaimed. Budgeted well time and circumstances. Debater, played devil's advocate with zest.
Reminded those weary of duplicating, "Repetition is the mother of learning."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Nobel co-recipients Ragnar Granit, George Wald
Physician, Biophysicist. Physiological and chemical visual processes in eye.
"Vision itself is a dynamic process. There is little in the world that stands still, at least not as imaged in our retinas, for our eyes are always moving. The visual system is almost exclusively organized to detect change and motion."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Co-Nobelist Charles B. Huggins
Physician, Pathologist, Scientist. Tumor-inducing Rous Sarcoma Virus, tumor filtrate transplantability. Nobel 50 yrs after discovery. Blood transfusion, world's first blood bank, Rous-Turner solution. Accurate editing, content, style. Experiments: extreme clarity. Equanimity, warmth. Many old are young to life.
"Uneducated men can be as great-hearted, lovable as those who know much."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Nobel co-recipient Servero Ochoa
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1979
Physician, Scientist. Discovered mechanisms in biological synthesis of RNA and DNA - basis of discovery of recombinant DNA which helped ignite biotechnology revolution. Founder, DNAX Institute.
"With more scientists struggling for grants in an era of tight budgets, nobody is going to propose doing anything that is bold or creative."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Nobel co-recipients George Beadle, Edward Tatum
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1989
Geneticist. Genetic recombination and organization of genetic material of bacteria. Artificial intelligence. NASA seeking life on Mars. Fastest rate possible for growth of bacterial cell and why. Nobel Prize at age 33.
At Nobel Banquet, "Pride is humbled as humility is exalted in the dignity and splendor of this occasion."
Biochemical Geneticist. Discovered that genes act by regulating definite chemical events. Brought era of classical genetics to a close and launched molecular age.
"It was a time when one went to work in the morning wondering what new excitement the day would bring." - Colleague and biographer Norman H. Horowitz.
Geneticist, Microbiologist, Biochemist. Genes act by regulating definite chemical events. Changed from Drosophila to Neurospora. Nurtured younger scientists. Generous spirit, scientific vision.
"Ability to balance critical scientific objectivity, personal ambition, interdependence on others-some scientists take lifetime to learn-was ingrained in Tatum from beginning." - Mentee, Biographer Joshua Lederberg.
Virologist, Bacteriologist. Discovered ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture. Cytopathic effect. Interferon, Viral Oncogenesis. Tissue culture enabled identifying hundreds of viruses, vaccine development.
Memorial to Advisor Zinsser: animated spontaneous conversation - literature, politics. Voltaire seemed around corner; Laurence Sterne upon the stair. Laboratory became way of life.
Physician, Virologist, Parasitologist. Discovered ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture. Isolated many viruses, parasites; developed diagnostic tests. Isolated German measles in son. Tissue culture enabled identifying hundreds of viruses, vaccine development.
Nobel Committee Sven Gard: tissue cultures will do for virology what Koch accomplished by culture media.
Physician, Virologist. Discovered ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture. Investigated infectious hepatitis, typhus fever, Q fever, mumps, herpes simplex and vaccinia. Supervised diagnostic virus laboratory. Educator, Science Statesperson. Interest: International health. Tissue culture enabled identifying hundreds of viruses, vaccine development.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Co-Nobelist Hans Krebs
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1966
Physician, Biochemist. Discovered co-enzyme A, its importance for intermediary metabolism. Identified serine phosphate as constituent of phosphoproteins which contain phosphate. CMP represents metabolically active carbamyl donor.
Liljestrand, Science Academy: …Regarding fundamental discoveries laymen ask for immediate practical application. Counter question of Benjamin Franklin: Of what use is a new-born baby?
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952
Ukrainian-born American Microbiologist, Biochemist. Isolated several antibiotics including Streptomycin for Tuberculosis and Neomycin. Proceeds earned from patents funded Waksman Institute of Microbiology and Waksman Foundation for Microbiology.
"The Lord hath created medicines out of the earth; and he that is wise will not abhor them. Ecclesiasticus, XXXVIII , 4"
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946
Geneticist. Production of mutations by X-ray irradiation.
"Do you consider it possible to discover a cosmic ray which - applied to humanity - would cause a mutation making it peace-loving and suited to happy relationships? You'll be awarded another Medicine and many Peace Nobels!" - Sigurd Curman, Banquet Speech
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Co-Nobelists: Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey
Physician - Bacteriologist, Immunologist. While researching Influenza virus, made ground breaking discovery: penicillin, by not neglecting chance observation - mould contaminating culture plate. WWI caused interest in Antiseptics. WWII, production cost was immaterial. Destiny.
Lone worker gets idea; details developed by team, but prime idea is due to enterprise, thought, perception of an individual.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Nobel co-recipient Herbert S. Gasser
Physician, Physiologist. Single nerve fibers highly differentiated functions. Cathode-ray oscillograph study of nerve action potentials. Circulatory system electrophysiology. Recording sphygmomanometer. Auriculo-ventricular bundle functions. Pulse pressure influence on kidney secretion, orthostatic albuminuria. Sound production in arteries. Metabolism with shortened intestines. Traumatic shock.
Career "fraught with series of fortunate circumstances, fortunate decisions."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Co-Nobelist Joseph Erlanger
Physician, Electrophysiologist, Pharmacologist. Discovered differentiated functions of single nerve fibers. Two types of nerve fibers with different thicknesses; thicker fibers convey nerve impulses fast.
Two times for working on a problem - before anyone has thought of it and after everyone else has left it - result: innovator or finalist.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
Physician - Anatomic Pathologist, Father of Immunology. ABO Blood Groups, Rh Typing. Paroxysmal Haemoglobinuria. Polio. Spirochaetes. Chemistry into service of serology. Meticulous observation, description, understanding in many fields.
Rigorously demanding of himself. Energetic. By nature somewhat pessimistic, preferred to live away from people.
Characteristic of him - died pipette in hand.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Nobel Co-recipient Archibald V. Hill
Physician. Energy conversions in muscle. Fine experimenter, Physiological Chemist.
Science should know no national barriers and prejudices. Scientists should pour oil smoothing real wisdom and rational self-reflection in agitated waves of national passions of people. This ethos of objectivity causes mutual understanding among nations. Consider all Nobel Prizes, 'Peace' Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel Co-recipient Paul Ehrlich
Ukrainian Zoologist. Theory of cellular immunity. Father of Natural immunity. Research: Comparative embryology, Phagocytosis, Anthrax, Rabies.
Weak eyesight, heart troubles, difficulties in University lead to pessimism. Twice attempted suicide. Discovery of phagocytosis completely changed his outlook on life; abandoned his pessimistic philosophy and determined to find further proof of hypothesis.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel co-recipient Ilya Mechnikov
Physician, Scientist. Immunologist, Hematology pioneer. Founded Chemotherapy. Classified stains.
Stained tissues, blood cell granules, tubercle bacillus. Standardized sera. Idea: Drugs’ chemical constitution related to action, affinity for cells against which directed.
"Schwann established cell as biological unit. Concept of cell is axis around which whole modern science of life revolves"
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Physician. Founder, phototherapy in dermatology. Lupus vulgaris treatment. Researched salt. Despite having Niemann-Pick disease,
strong willed, persevering.
Denmark early education - Rector: "Niels is a very nice boy. His gifts are small; he’s devoid of energy." Cause: fagging for older pupils. Moved to Iceland school; succeeded despite not knowing language.
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