Chemist, Inventor, Awesome Administrator, Social Reformer.
"It could and should soon come to pass that all states pledge themselves collectively to attack an aggressor. That would make war impossible, and would force even the most brutal and unreasonable Power to appeal to a court of arbitration, or else keep quiet."
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2007 USA
Nobel co-recipient Brian K. Kobilka
Physician- Cardiologist, Scientist. G-protein-coupled receptors;
approximately half of all medicines used today use this kind of receptor.
"Strong family history of coronary artery disease ... at age 50 I had quadruple bypass surgery . I minimize my risk factors with daily physical exercise, a vegetarian diet and appropriate medications".
Physical organic chemist. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Sole author - 7 consecutive papers. Heck reaction: important concept, tool for organic and medicinal chemists; fuorescence labeling of DNA bases - sequencing DNA/Genome. Thinner computer screens in future. "Great art in test tube."
Growing orchids in early teens lead to passion for chemistry.
Organic chemist. Inventor of boron version of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Investigated stereochemistry of hydroboration reaction. Suzuki reaction kept evolving. Became interested in organic chemistry after reading textbook.
"There were difficult and joyful periods. Memories of tough, trying experiences tend to fade with time. Now I think mainly about fun things."
Molecular Geneticist. Introduced specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells. Gene Targeting, Homeobox Genes, Development, Behavior.
Mother incarcerated as political prisoner, Germany. "At age 4½, I set off on my own, living in streets, orphanages; joining gangs of homeless children; generally hungry. Vivid recollections, brutal beyond description."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
Nobel Prize also awarded to George F. Smoot
Physicist - Astrophysics, Instrumentation. COBE, Blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
"For years I had successfully repelled all challenges to my concentration on one overwhelming responsibility. Now, it was done, and I switched my attention to ..."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988
Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.
"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Nobel co-recipients Eric A. Cornell, Carl E. Wieman
Physicist - Atomic Physics. Hobbies: Running, Bicycling.
"...the quest for pure knowledge and the pursuit of goals which are only vaguely defined and change as the research progresses... I didn't anticipate that the best was still to come".
National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1997
One of two Fathers of the Internet. TCP/IP protocols. Internet
Architecture. Chief Internet Evangelist, Google. Interplanetary Internet.
"Brilliant, indescribably enthusiastic, humorous, happy, treats people extremely well. It would be nice to go to work every day and work with people like Vint Cerf." – R.V. Nagaveni, Founder, Ganga Library.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996
Co-nobelist: James A. Mirrlees
Economist, Mathematician. 'Fundamental contributions to economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information.' Solve real world problems. Interests: efficiency of public services, irrational budget accounting, excessive concern with inflation, insufficient attention to wasteful unemployment, macroeconomic stabilization, ethics, philosophy, world peace.
Rip van Winkle award for deep, uninterrupted concentration while attending seminars.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1993
Co-Nobelist F.W. de Klerk
Award: "for work regarding peaceful termination of apartheid regime and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa."
Nelson Mandela’s Nobel co-recipient was President Frederik Willem de Klerk who released him from prison. They had agreed to transitioning to majority rule peacefully.
“It always seems impossible until it’s done.”
Chemist, Pharmacologist. Discovered principles for drug treatment; developed drugs - anticancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-gout, anti-malarial. Purines.
"I was a child with an insatiable thirst for knowledge. My beloved grandfather died of cancer when I was 15. I was highly motivated to discover a cure for this terrible disease".
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982
The President's National Medal of Science - Behavior and Social Science 1987
Economist - industrial organization. 'Seminal studies of industrial structures; functioning of markets; causes, effects of public regulation.' Great teacher. Writings easy to admire, joy to read, impossible to imitate. Interest: many areas of economics; history of economics. Very Humorous.
Chicago Economics Department intellectual ferment - intense intellectual atmosphere; captivated him.
Organic Chemist. Development of use of boron into important reagents in organic synthesis. School, advanced several times, graduating at 12; refused further advancement, avoiding being sister's classmate.
Graduating, Depression years, future wife Sarah gave him gift, Stock's 'Hydrides of Boron and Silicon' because cheapest chemistry book! Led to Nobel Prize!
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993
Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.
"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."
Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.
How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
The President's National Medal of Sciences - Biological Sciences 1997
Co-Nobelists Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins
Zoologist. ‘Discovered molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.’
Very generous with subordinates regarding authorship of articles.
“Good science is difficult. We must believe strongly in our ideas.”
The Nobel Prize in Physics, 1961
Nobel co-recipient Rudolf Mössbauer
National Medal of Science - Physical Science 1986
Nuclear and particle physicist. Discoverer of sodium iodide scintillation counters. Carried out electron scattering from atomic nuclei, revealing structure of nuclei and nucleons. Original proposer of two-mile SLAC linear accelerator. Pioneer of gamma-ray astronomy, using EGRET detector aboard the Compton observatory. Research in laser fusion, applications of physics to medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Nobel co-recipient Servero Ochoa
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1979
Physician, Scientist. Discovered mechanisms in biological synthesis of RNA and DNA - basis of discovery of recombinant DNA which helped ignite biotechnology revolution. Founder, DNAX Institute.
"With more scientists struggling for grants in an era of tight budgets, nobody is going to propose doing anything that is bold or creative."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Co-Nobelist Hans Krebs
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1966
Physician, Biochemist. Discovered co-enzyme A, its importance for intermediary metabolism. Identified serine phosphate as constituent of phosphoproteins which contain phosphate. CMP represents metabolically active carbamyl donor.
Liljestrand, Science Academy: …Regarding fundamental discoveries laymen ask for immediate practical application. Counter question of Benjamin Franklin: Of what use is a new-born baby?
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991
Nobel co-recipient: Edwin M. McMillan
Nuclear Chemist. Transuranium - Plutonium. Isotopes identification. Actinide concept. Atomic Bomb. Peaceful use of atomic energy. Advisor to 10 US Presidents. Swedish ancestry. Journal since age 8 yrs. Hiking.
Franck Report: "I had joined a committee of scientists who advocated the use of the atomic bomb for demonstration purposes. We hoped the enemy would see the destructive power of this weapon and immediately surrender. In June, 1945, we attempted to deliver our plan, the Franck Report, to President Truman. I don't know if he ever saw our work..."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Co-Nobelists: Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey
Physician - Bacteriologist, Immunologist. While researching Influenza virus, made ground breaking discovery: penicillin, by not neglecting chance observation - mould contaminating culture plate. WWI caused interest in Antiseptics. WWII, production cost was immaterial. Destiny.
Lone worker gets idea; details developed by team, but prime idea is due to enterprise, thought, perception of an individual.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Atomic Physicist. Molecular Diffraction of Light. Raman Effect. Structure, optical behaviour of iridescent substances. Acoustics, violin.
Raman lost Nobel Prize money to fraudulent financer. Meeting fraudster years later, he said: You deserve Nobel Prize for your cunning in duping Nobel Laureate!
Playful comment: Unfortunately Economics Nobel instituted later in 1969!
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927
Philosopher, Essayist wrote in French. Rich and vitalizing ideas and brilliant skill in presentation. President, Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of League of Nations.
Philosophical system demonstrating Nobel's idea of acknowledging with his Prizes, not human deeds but new ideas revealed through select personalities. Regain for man's consciousness the divine gift of intuition and to put reason in its proper place: serving and controlling ideas.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926
Italian writer. Idealistically inspired writings picture life with clarity. With depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general. Criticize moral norms and social values, but not criticize people who are victims of circumstances. Pet crow.
Constant faith in humankind and in God
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922
Spanish dramatist. In happy manner he continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama. Chiefly writer of comedies of manners and of one-act farces. Upon pediatrician father, at death, leaving comfortable income, he abandoned law studies. Never married.
"You meet the warrior when in battle but it is not until victory that you meet the gentleman".
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1925
Award: "for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty."
“The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore, all progress depends on the unreasonable man.”
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921
Novelist, storyteller; almost all genres. Nobility of style, profound human sympathy, true Gallic temperament. Historical fiction evokes past civilizations with great charm, deep insight.
Post-World War I. At Nobel ceremony Frenchman France turned to Nobelist, German Nernst, exchanged a long and cordial handshake with him - a profoundly symbolic gesture.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920
Norwegian writer. In youth, poverty stricken. Little formal education. Leader of Neo-Romantic revolt. Promoted individualism. Exciting description of nature.
"I sat looking at her with rapt attention. What a wonderful pleasure to be sitting in a human dwelling again, and talk with a lively young girl instead of with myself!"
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Indian Poet, Bangali, English. All literary genres. Voice of India's Spiritual Heritage. Social reformer. Promoted gender equality, empowerment of women. Indian National Movement participant. Mahathma Gandhi was his devoted friend. Founder, school in Shantiniketan. Author, National Anthem of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.
"Love does not claim possession, but gives freedom."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Nobel Co-recipient Tobias Asser
Publisher, Philosopher. Founder, Die Friedenswarte (peace publication). Permanent Court of Arbitration, Netherlands. Collaborator, Nobelist Bertha von Suttner. Propaganda for peace: war was proof of validity of pacifistic analysis of world politics.
War is not in itself a condition so much as the symptom of a condition, that of international anarchy.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911
Belgian writer in French. Lawyer. Many-sided literary activities. Dramatic works distinguished by a wealth of imagination. Poetic fancy. Reveals deep inspiration. Appeals to readers' own feelings, stimulates their imaginations.
When we lose one we love, our bitterest tears are called forth by the memory of hours when we loved not enough.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908
Idealism raises our life to greatness above the hubbub of everyday life by representation of eternal truths; in midst of our dark situation it can strengthen our belief in reason of life. Only faith can enable us to cope with enormous obstacles, fill us with confidence of success.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1908
Nobel Co-recipient Fredrik Bajer
Parliamentarian, writer. Founder, Swedish Peace and Arbitration League. Inspiring orator.
Without peace there is no freedom, individual or national. War and hostilities are a form of slavery. Under such conditions, laws are silent. Without peace there is nothing truly human. Peace is harmony. Harmony is the highest ideal of life.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel co-recipient Ilya Mechnikov
Physician, Scientist. Immunologist, Hematology pioneer. Founded Chemotherapy. Classified stains.
Stained tissues, blood cell granules, tubercle bacillus. Standardized sera. Idea: Drugs’ chemical constitution related to action, affinity for cells against which directed.
"Schwann established cell as biological unit. Concept of cell is axis around which whole modern science of life revolves"
The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Nobel co-recipient Albert Gobat
Permanent International Peace Bureau [1910 Nobel Peace Prize]. Nobelist Passy's description: "exactitude, firmness." History Demonstrates War's Futility. Predicted, 1901: Despite modern weapons' destructiveness, wars will ebb, flow. Alfred Nobel's Contemporary.
Nobel Chairperson Løvland, "You Swiss, with your sense of life's realities, have special gift for taking ideas from realm of dreams and turning them into realities."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1903
Co-founder, Inter-Parliamentary Union. Secretary, International Arbitration League. British Parliamentarian. World organizing. Prevent war. Founder, Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners.
Upon entering into treaties of arbitration, the disputants would have time for reflection, for while arbitrators were deliberating, passions of contending parties would cool and chances of war greatly diminished.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Nobel co-recipient: Henry Dunant
Alfred Nobel's contemporary. Apostle of Peace, Humanitarian, Economist, Lawyer, Politician. Founder, French peace society. Free trade between independent nations promotes peace. Inspired by Nobelist Randal Cremer.
Opposed France's colonial policy. 1905 Sweden-Norway conflict, declared, '…peaceful solution will make me hundred times happier than when I received Nobel Prize…' Wish fulfilled.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902
Physician. Mosquitoes’ malarial parasites life-cycle. Mathematical models for epidemiology. Malaria prevention. Contributed to pure, applied mathematics.
‘My microscope was worn out, screws rusted with sweat from hands, forehead; remaining eye-piece cracked; invaluable oil-immersion lens remained good.’
‘Dingy military hospital, cracked microscope, medicine bottles - only laboratory and apparatus I possessed.’
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