Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2007 USA
Nobel co-recipient Brian K. Kobilka
Physician- Cardiologist, Scientist. G-protein-coupled receptors;
approximately half of all medicines used today use this kind of receptor.
"Strong family history of coronary artery disease ... at age 50 I had quadruple bypass surgery . I minimize my risk factors with daily physical exercise, a vegetarian diet and appropriate medications".
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka
Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.
At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.
Physical organic chemist. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Sole author - 7 consecutive papers. Heck reaction: important concept, tool for organic and medicinal chemists; fuorescence labeling of DNA bases - sequencing DNA/Genome. Thinner computer screens in future. "Great art in test tube."
Growing orchids in early teens lead to passion for chemistry.
National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2009
Cognitive neuroscientist, Business Administrator. Brain/behavior relationships in humans, nonhuman primates. Identified … areas in cerebral cortex essential for perception and memory: cortico-limbic circuit responsible for memory of facts and events; cortico-striatal circuit responsible for learning of different types of habits and motor skills.
"Perseverance is built into the trait of curiosity, a scientist's motivation. If you're sufficiently curious, you're willing to continue despite failures and obstacles. It's so easy to give up."
National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2008
Psychologist. Cognitive neuroscience - attention, early brain development, changes in brain systems with learning; developmental disorders; brain injury. Posner cueing task. Founding Director, Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology.
National Medal of Science - Behavior and Social Science 2005
"Psychologist, Cognitive-Social. Human memory, mnemonic devices, retrieval strategies, recording strategies, category learning. Cognitive processes, emotion, imagery, language and reading comprehension as they relate to memory. Mathematical Models, Computer Simulation of Memory, Behavior Modification."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988
Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.
"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."
National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1997
One of two Fathers of the Internet. TCP/IP protocols. Internet
Architecture. Chief Internet Evangelist, Google. Interplanetary Internet.
"Brilliant, indescribably enthusiastic, humorous, happy, treats people extremely well. It would be nice to go to work every day and work with people like Vint Cerf." – R.V. Nagaveni, Founder, Ganga Library.
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Nobel Prize shared by J. Michael Bishop
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001
Physician, Scientist, Litterateur. Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Co-founder, Public Library of Science Journals. Initiated doubling NIH budget. Interests: cycling, rowing.
Chemist, Pharmacologist. Discovered principles for drug treatment; developed drugs - anticancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-gout, anti-malarial. Purines.
"I was a child with an insatiable thirst for knowledge. My beloved grandfather died of cancer when I was 15. I was highly motivated to discover a cure for this terrible disease".
Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1988 USA
Nobel Prize shared with Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz
Physicist, Cosmologist, Astrophysicist. Hobbies: Playing the Flute, Tennis, Mountaineering, Sailing.
To Ganga Library founder on 3 Aug 2014, "I have used your questions to me as an incentive to prepare a list of my publications".
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993
Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.
"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."
Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.
How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
The President's National Medal of Sciences - Biological Sciences 1997
Co-Nobelists Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins
Zoologist. ‘Discovered molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.’
Very generous with subordinates regarding authorship of articles.
“Good science is difficult. We must believe strongly in our ideas.”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Nobel Co-recipients Tadeus Reichstein, Phillip S.Hench
Chemist. Adrenal cortex hormones including cortisone: structure, biological effects. Thyroid hormone thyroxine: isolated. Glutathione: crystallized, established structure.
What physiologic processes are modified by cortisone and how this influence is exerted are matters still locked within this hormone. Said Shakespeare's soothsayer, "In Nature's infinite book of secrecy a little I can read."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Co-Nobelist Joseph Erlanger
Physician, Electrophysiologist, Pharmacologist. Discovered differentiated functions of single nerve fibers. Two types of nerve fibers with different thicknesses; thicker fibers convey nerve impulses fast.
Two times for working on a problem - before anyone has thought of it and after everyone else has left it - result: innovator or finalist.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
Physician - Anatomic Pathologist, Father of Immunology. ABO Blood Groups, Rh Typing. Paroxysmal Haemoglobinuria. Polio. Spirochaetes. Chemistry into service of serology. Meticulous observation, description, understanding in many fields.
Rigorously demanding of himself. Energetic. By nature somewhat pessimistic, preferred to live away from people.
Characteristic of him - died pipette in hand.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Nobel Co-recipient Archibald V. Hill
Physician. Energy conversions in muscle. Fine experimenter, Physiological Chemist.
Science should know no national barriers and prejudices. Scientists should pour oil smoothing real wisdom and rational self-reflection in agitated waves of national passions of people. This ethos of objectivity causes mutual understanding among nations. Consider all Nobel Prizes, 'Peace' Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel Co-recipient Paul Ehrlich
Ukrainian Zoologist. Theory of cellular immunity. Father of Natural immunity. Research: Comparative embryology, Phagocytosis, Anthrax, Rabies.
Weak eyesight, heart troubles, difficulties in University lead to pessimism. Twice attempted suicide. Discovery of phagocytosis completely changed his outlook on life; abandoned his pessimistic philosophy and determined to find further proof of hypothesis.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel co-recipient Ilya Mechnikov
Physician, Scientist. Immunologist, Hematology pioneer. Founded Chemotherapy. Classified stains.
Stained tissues, blood cell granules, tubercle bacillus. Standardized sera. Idea: Drugs’ chemical constitution related to action, affinity for cells against which directed.
"Schwann established cell as biological unit. Concept of cell is axis around which whole modern science of life revolves"
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