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H. Gobind Khorana, Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
National Medal of Sciences - Biological Sciences 1978

Co-Nobelists: Robert W. Holley, Marshall W. Nirenberg

Organic Chemist, Biochemist. 'Genetic code interpretation, function in protein synthesis. Pioneered synthesizing biologically active gene, determine codon triplets' nucleotides order. Unraveled genetic code, how nucleic acids form proteins. Pioneered genetic engineering. Multidisciplinary work.

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Publication No:US2815342 A
Title:Synthesis of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphates
Publication Type:Grant
Publication Date:Dec 3, 1957
Filing Date:Mar 4, 1955
Inventors:Khorana Har G
Assignee:Canadian Patents Dev
Abstract:This invention relates to the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleoside 5’-monophosphates and 2’,5’- and 3’,5’-diphosphates.
Representative Figure:
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Publication No:US2795580 A
Title:Synthesis of nucleoside polyphosphates
Publication Type:Grant
Publication Date:Jun 11,1957
Filing Date:May 27, 1955
Inventors:Gobind Khorana Har
Assignee:Canadian Patents Dev
Abstract:This invention relates to the synthesis of nucleoside phosphates.
Representative Figure:
Family Members437,006
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Publication No:US20040029229 A1
Title:High level protein expression system
Publication Type:Application
Publication Date:Feb 12, 2004
Filing Date:May 20, 2003
Inventors:Philip Reeves, H. Khorana, Nico Callewaert, Roland Contreras
Assignee:Reeves Philip J., Khorana H. Gobind, Nico Callewaert, Roland Contreras
Abstract:The present application is directed to a system for expressing high levels of a protein of interest in a cell. Preferably the system includes introducing into a mammalian cell line an expression vector that comprises a gene encoding a selectable marker under the control of a weak promoter to facilitate integration of the expression vector into genomic areas that result in high levels of expression, along with a gene encoding the protein of interest. The gene of interest is linked to a strong promoter, which results in high levels of expression of the desired protein. In one embodiment, the protein of interest is detrimental or toxic to cells, and the promoter is an inducible promoter. In another embodiment, the protein of interest is a glycoprotein, including membrane proteins, and the cell line has been mutated to inactivate N-acetylglucosamine transferase I to ensure uniform glycosylation. Preferably the cell is a mammalian or an insect cell.
Representative Figure:
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Name: Har Gobind Khorana
Birth: 9 January 1922, Raipur, India
Death: 9 November 2011, Concord, MA, USA
Institution: University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
Award: "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis."
Portion of Cash: 1/3
Education, Mentors: D.A.V. High School, Multan, India; Influential Teacher; Ratan Lal.
B.Sc. 1943 & M. Sc. 1945, Punjab University, Lahore, India; Supervisor: Mahan Singh.
Ph. D. University of Liverpool, UK 1948, Indian government scholarship; Mentor: Roger J. S. Beer.
Postdoc Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, 1948-1949; Mentor: Vladimir Prelog, Chemistry Nobelist 1975.
Postdoc Cambridge University, England 1949; Mentors: G. W. Kenner & A. R. Todd, Chemistry Nobelist 1957.
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