Chemist, Inventor, Awesome Administrator, Social Reformer.
"It could and should soon come to pass that all states pledge themselves collectively to attack an aggressor. That would make war impossible, and would force even the most brutal and unreasonable Power to appeal to a court of arbitration, or else keep quiet."
Organic Chemist. Inventor of organozinc variant of the palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Read voraciously including "how to …" publications. Dreamt of Nobel half century prior to being awarded prize. Upon arriving in US and discovering Nobelists visiting UPenn, realized that being awarded the Nobel could happen to anybody including himself.
Physical organic chemist. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Sole author - 7 consecutive papers. Heck reaction: important concept, tool for organic and medicinal chemists; fuorescence labeling of DNA bases - sequencing DNA/Genome. Thinner computer screens in future. "Great art in test tube."
Growing orchids in early teens lead to passion for chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Nobel prize also awarded to Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001
Molecular Geneticist. Introduced specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells. Gene Targeting, Homeobox Genes, Development, Behavior.
Mother incarcerated as political prisoner, Germany. "At age 4½, I set off on my own, living in streets, orphanages; joining gangs of homeless children; generally hungry. Vivid recollections, brutal beyond description."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988
Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.
"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Nobel co-recipients Eric A. Cornell, Carl E. Wieman
Physicist - Atomic Physics. Hobbies: Running, Bicycling.
"...the quest for pure knowledge and the pursuit of goals which are only vaguely defined and change as the research progresses... I didn't anticipate that the best was still to come".
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Nobel co-recipients: Robert F. Furchgott and Ferid Murad
Molecular & Medical Pharmacologist
While testifying before Congress in 2000, Ignarro remarked: "Only in America could the son of an uneducated carpenter receive the Nobel Prize in Medicine."
National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1997
One of two Fathers of the Internet. TCP/IP protocols. Internet
Architecture. Chief Internet Evangelist, Google. Interplanetary Internet.
"Brilliant, indescribably enthusiastic, humorous, happy, treats people extremely well. It would be nice to go to work every day and work with people like Vint Cerf." – R.V. Nagaveni, Founder, Ganga Library.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1983
Nobel co-recipient Martin L. Perl
Nobel prize: "for the detection of the neutrino"
Award: "For the experimental discovery of the free neutrino and the elucidation of its properties and interactions and the testing of fundamental conservation laws of physics."
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990
Organic Chemist - Interested in application of organic chemistry to human health. His groups have achieved a multitude of total syntheses of complex molecules. Originator of retrosynthetic analysis. Recognized as "Most Cited Author in Chemistry" by American Chemical Society in 2002.
"Organic chemistry was especially fascinating with its intrinsic beauty and its great relevance to human health."
Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1988 USA
Nobel Prize shared with Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz
Physicist, Cosmologist, Astrophysicist. Hobbies: Playing the Flute, Tennis, Mountaineering, Sailing.
To Ganga Library founder on 3 Aug 2014, "I have used your questions to me as an incentive to prepare a list of my publications".
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991
Chemist, Pharmacologist. Discovered principles for drug treatment; developed drugs - anticancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-gout, anti-malarial. Purines.
"I was a child with an insatiable thirst for knowledge. My beloved grandfather died of cancer when I was 15. I was highly motivated to discover a cure for this terrible disease".
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Nobel co-recepients Donald J. Cram, Charles J. Pedersen
Chemist. Interests: Supramolecular chemistry, Self-assembly and self-organization, Constitutional dynamic chemistry; Music, Philosophy.
Founding director, 'Chemistry, a European Journal'. Gave starting impetus to other European journals, rare manifestation of European spirit and supranationality bridging historical divides!
President, International Organization for Chemical Sciences in Development, helping chemists in developing countries.
Organic Chemist. Development of use of boron into important reagents in organic synthesis. School, advanced several times, graduating at 12; refused further advancement, avoiding being sister's classmate.
Graduating, Depression years, future wife Sarah gave him gift, Stock's 'Hydrides of Boron and Silicon' because cheapest chemistry book! Led to Nobel Prize!
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993
Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.
"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."
Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.
How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Co-Nobelists Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler
Pharmacologist. Neurophysiologist. Mechanism for storage, release, inactivation of humoral transmitters in nerve endings. Discovered drug metabolic pathways: hydroxylation, demethylation, deamination, conjugation. Led to liver’s microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes discovery. Pheochromocytoma. Carboxylmethyl transferase. Melatonin.
Ideal mentor. Infectious exhilaration in discovery. Research was genuine fun. Students came out of lab with same attitude.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
National Medal of Sciences - Biological Sciences 1978
Co-Nobelists: Robert W. Holley, Marshall W. Nirenberg
Organic Chemist, Biochemist. 'Genetic code interpretation, function in protein synthesis. Pioneered synthesizing biologically active gene, determine codon triplets'
nucleotides order. Unraveled genetic code, how nucleic acids form proteins. Pioneered genetic engineering. Multidisciplinary work.
"Wife brought sense of purpose. In foreign country, I felt out of place everywhere, at home nowhere."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Nobel co-recipients Ragnar Granit, George Wald
Physician, Biophysicist. Physiological and chemical visual processes in eye.
"Vision itself is a dynamic process. There is little in the world that stands still, at least not as imaged in our retinas, for our eyes are always moving. The visual system is almost exclusively organized to detect change and motion."
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1964
Nobel co-recipients Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Richard P. Feynman
Award: "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1968
Nobel co-recipients Maria Goeppert Mayer, J. Hans D. Jensen
Award: "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
The Nobel Prize in Physics, 1961
Nobel co-recipient Rudolf Mössbauer
National Medal of Science - Physical Science 1986
Nuclear and particle physicist. Discoverer of sodium iodide scintillation counters. Carried out electron scattering from atomic nuclei, revealing structure of nuclei and nucleons. Original proposer of two-mile SLAC linear accelerator. Pioneer of gamma-ray astronomy, using EGRET detector aboard the Compton observatory. Research in laser fusion, applications of physics to medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Nobel co-recipients George Beadle, Edward Tatum
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1989
Geneticist. Genetic recombination and organization of genetic material of bacteria. Artificial intelligence. NASA seeking life on Mars. Fastest rate possible for growth of bacterial cell and why. Nobel Prize at age 33.
At Nobel Banquet, "Pride is humbled as humility is exalted in the dignity and splendor of this occasion."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952
Ukrainian-born American Microbiologist, Biochemist. Isolated several antibiotics including Streptomycin for Tuberculosis and Neomycin. Proceeds earned from patents funded Waksman Institute of Microbiology and Waksman Foundation for Microbiology.
"The Lord hath created medicines out of the earth; and he that is wise will not abhor them. Ecclesiasticus, XXXVIII , 4"
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991
Nobel co-recipient: Edwin M. McMillan
Nuclear Chemist. Transuranium - Plutonium. Isotopes identification. Actinide concept. Atomic Bomb. Peaceful use of atomic energy. Advisor to 10 US Presidents. Swedish ancestry. Journal since age 8 yrs. Hiking.
Franck Report: "I had joined a committee of scientists who advocated the use of the atomic bomb for demonstration purposes. We hoped the enemy would see the destructive power of this weapon and immediately surrender. In June, 1945, we attempted to deliver our plan, the Franck Report, to President Truman. I don't know if he ever saw our work..."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Nobel Co-recipients Tadeus Reichstein, Phillip S.Hench
Chemist. Adrenal cortex hormones including cortisone: structure, biological effects. Thyroid hormone thyroxine: isolated. Glutathione: crystallized, established structure.
What physiologic processes are modified by cortisone and how this influence is exerted are matters still locked within this hormone. Said Shakespeare's soothsayer, "In Nature's infinite book of secrecy a little I can read."
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