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History of Discovery
Robert Lefkowitz

Photo: © Nobel Foundation

Robert J. Lefkowitz MD

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Nobel Prize shared with Brian K. Kobilka
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2007 USA

Physician- Cardiologist, Scientist. G-protein-coupled receptors; approximately half of all medicines used today use this kind of receptor.

"Strong family history of coronary artery disease ... at age 50 I had quadruple bypass surgery [1994]. I minimize my risk factors with daily physical exercise, a vegetarian diet and appropriate medications".

History of Discovery

John Gurdon Noble

Photo: courtesy Dr.Gurdon's Secretary Ms. Dilly Bradford, 24 Mar 2014.

Sir John B. Gurdon Kt DPhil DSc FRS

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka

Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.

At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.

`Know Thyself

History of Discovery

Heck

Photo: Holger Motzkau/Wikimedia Commons

Richard F. Heck Ph.D.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Nobel co-recipients Ei-ichi Negishizz, Akira Suzuki

Physical organic chemist. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Sole author - 7 consecutive papers. Heck reaction: important concept, tool for organic and medicinal chemists; fuorescence labeling of DNA bases - sequencing DNA/Genome. Thinner computer screens in future. "Great art in test tube."

Growing orchids in early teens lead to passion for chemistry.

History of Discovery

Michkin

Photo: LN, NIMH

Mortimer Mishkin Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2009

Cognitive neuroscientist, Business Administrator. Brain/behavior relationships in humans, nonhuman primates. Identified … areas in cerebral cortex essential for perception and memory: cortico-limbic circuit responsible for memory of facts and events; cortico-striatal circuit responsible for learning of different types of habits and motor skills.

"Perseverance is built into the trait of curiosity, a scientist's motivation. If you're sufficiently curious, you're willing to continue despite failures and obstacles. It's so easy to give up."

History of Neuroscience: Mortimer Mishkin 5 July 2012 53:52

Understanding neural basis of perception and memory. 30 Nov. 2010. 3:56

Posner

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Michael I. Posner. Upon receiving Carty award 2012.

Michael I. Posner Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2008

Psychologist. Cognitive neuroscience - attention, early brain development, changes in brain systems with learning; developmental disorders; brain injury. Posner cueing task. Founding Director, Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology.

History of Neuroscience

Neuroscience of Attention. GoCognitive

Aumann

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Robert J. Aumann

Robert J. Aumann Ph.D.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005
Nobel co-recipient Thomas C. Schelling

Mathematician. Game Theory. Interest: Talmud.

"Science is exploration for the sake of exploration."

Nobel Lecture/History


Photo: Courtesy Dr. Gordon Bower

Gordon H. Bower Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Behavior and Social Science 2005

"Psychologist, Cognitive-Social. Human memory, mnemonic devices, retrieval strategies, recording strategies, category learning. Cognitive processes, emotion, imagery, language and reading comprehension as they relate to memory. Mathematical Models, Computer Simulation of Memory, Behavior Modification."

Biography including History of Discovery

Lauterbur

Photo: Wikipedia Commons

Paul C. Lauterbur Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988

Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.

"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."

History of Discovery

Varmus

Photo: NIH

Harold Varmus M.D.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Nobel Prize shared by J. Michael Bishop
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Physician, Scientist, Litterateur. Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Co-founder, Public Library of Science Journals. Initiated doubling NIH budget. Interests: cycling, rowing.

'Unflappable Varmus'

Title:
Author:
Harold Varmus
Publisher:
W. W. Norton & Company, 2009
ISBN:
13: 978-0-393-06128-4
Length:
315 pages
Elion

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Gertrude B. Elion M.S.[Chemisty]

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991

Chemist, Pharmacologist. Discovered principles for drug treatment; developed drugs - anticancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-gout, anti-malarial. Purines.

"I was a child with an insatiable thirst for knowledge. My beloved grandfather died of cancer when I was 15. I was highly motivated to discover a cure for this terrible disease".

History of Discovery

Likens

Photo: Courtesy Gene Elden Likens

Gene Likens Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Zoologist. Ecosystem ecology, biogeochemistry, acid rain, human impacts on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Linked fossil fuel combustion to acid rain. Founder, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

History of Discovery

Steinberger

Photo: Sigismund von Dobschütz. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Jack Steinberger Ph.D.

Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Nobel Prize shared with Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1988 USA

Physicist, Cosmologist, Astrophysicist. Hobbies: Playing the Flute, Tennis, Mountaineering, Sailing.

To Ganga Library founder on 3 Aug 2014, "I have used your questions to me as an incentive to prepare a list of my publications".

History of Discovery

Roger Guillemin

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Roger Guillemin

Roger Guillemin M.D., Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Nobel Prize also awarded to Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
National Medal of Science-Biological Sciences 1976 USA

Physician, Physiologist, Neuroendocrinologist. Peptide hormone production of brain. Visual Artist.

Alfred Nobel chose to associate Literature and Science in his legacy. The mission, role and responsibility to society of a scientist and an artist are the same.

History of Discovery

Nathans

Daniel Nathans as teenager, leaning on tree stump, 1942-1945.Photo: National Library of Medicine, USA

Daniel M. Nathans M.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993

Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.

"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."

History of Discovery

Temin

Drawing: Newton Llorente

Howard M. Temin Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Nobel Co-recipients David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1992

Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.

How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.

History of Discovery

Steinberger

Photo: Sigismund von Dobschütz. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Jack Steinberger Ph.D.

Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Nobel Prize shared with Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1988 USA

Physicist, Cosmologist, Astrophysicist. Hobbies: Playing the Flute, Tennis, Mountaineering, Sailing.

To Ganga Library founder on 3 Aug 2014, "I have used your questions to me as an incentive to prepare a list of my publications".

Learning About Particles
Title:

Author:
Publisher:

ISBN:
Length:
Learning About Particles - 50 Privileged Years
Jack Steinberger
Springer Science & Business Media, 2005
3540268383, 9783540268383
191 pages
Hartline

Sketch: Newton Llorente

Haldan K. Hartline Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Nobel co-recipients Ragnar Granit, George Wald

Physician, Biophysicist. Physiological and chemical visual processes in eye.

"Vision itself is a dynamic process. There is little in the world that stands still, at least not as imaged in our retinas, for our eyes are always moving. The visual system is almost exclusively organized to detect change and motion."

History of Discovery

Gasser

Drawing by Newton Llorente

Herbert S. Gasser

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Co-Nobelist Joseph Erlanger

Physician, Electrophysiologist, Pharmacologist. Discovered differentiated functions of single nerve fibers. Two types of nerve fibers with different thicknesses; thicker fibers convey nerve impulses fast.

Two times for working on a problem - before anyone has thought of it and after everyone else has left it - result: innovator or finalist.

History of Discovery

Landsteiner

Drawing by Newton llorente

Karl Landsteiner

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Physician - Anatomic Pathologist, Father of Immunology. ABO Blood Groups, Rh Typing. Paroxysmal Haemoglobinuria. Polio. Spirochaetes. Chemistry into service of serology. Meticulous observation, description, understanding in many fields.

Rigorously demanding of himself. Energetic. By nature somewhat pessimistic, preferred to live away from people.
Characteristic of him - died pipette in hand.

History of Discovery

Meyerhof

Photo: Nobel Foundation. Source: Wikipedia Commons

Otto F. Meyerhof

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Nobel Co-recipient Archibald V. Hill

Physician. Energy conversions in muscle. Fine experimenter, Physiological Chemist.

Science should know no national barriers and prejudices. Scientists should pour oil smoothing real wisdom and rational self-reflection in agitated waves of national passions of people. This ethos of objectivity causes mutual understanding among nations. Consider all Nobel Prizes, 'Peace' Prizes.

History of Discovery

“One comes to be of just such stuff as that on which the mind is set” - Maithri Upanishath, VI.34:3

“…the peace that is found in libraries and laboratories…” - Louis Pasteur
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