Chemist, Inventor, Awesome Administrator, Social Reformer.
"It could and should soon come to pass that all states pledge themselves collectively to attack an aggressor. That would make war impossible, and would force even the most brutal and unreasonable Power to appeal to a court of arbitration, or else keep quiet."
Physical organic chemist. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Sole author - 7 consecutive papers. Heck reaction: important concept, tool for organic and medicinal chemists; fuorescence labeling of DNA bases - sequencing DNA/Genome. Thinner computer screens in future. "Great art in test tube."
Growing orchids in early teens lead to passion for chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988
Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.
"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
The President's National Medel of Sciences - Physical Sciences, 1969
Organic Chemist. Development of use of boron into important reagents in organic synthesis. School, advanced several times, graduating at 12; refused further advancement, avoiding being sister's classmate.
Graduating, Depression years, future wife Sarah gave him gift, Stock's 'Hydrides of Boron and Silicon' because cheapest chemistry book! Led to Nobel Prize!
The Nobel Peace Prize 1927
Nobel co-recipient Ferdinand Buisson
Historian. Member, German Parliament. Professor, Berlin University
"…Kant found the only assurance for peace in the idea that war would become so terrible and unbearable that human beings, even though they remain as morally weak as they now are, would be forced to work together for peace…"
The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
President, USA. International Peace Arbitrator, various treaties. Vigorous, businesslike. "We abhor bully, oppressor, in private or public life". Conservationist, protected 230,000,000 acres of public land.
After camping in Yosemite National Park, "It was like lying in a great solemn cathedral, far vaster and more beautiful than any built by man."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1903
Co-founder, Inter-Parliamentary Union. Secretary, International Arbitration League. British Parliamentarian. World organizing. Prevent war. Founder, Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners.
Upon entering into treaties of arbitration, the disputants would have time for reflection, for while arbitrators were deliberating, passions of contending parties would cool and chances of war greatly diminished.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Nobel co-recipient Albert Gobat
Permanent International Peace Bureau [1910 Nobel Peace Prize]. Nobelist Passy's description: "exactitude, firmness." History Demonstrates War's Futility. Predicted, 1901: Despite modern weapons' destructiveness, wars will ebb, flow. Alfred Nobel's Contemporary.
Nobel Chairperson Løvland, "You Swiss, with your sense of life's realities, have special gift for taking ideas from realm of dreams and turning them into realities."
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