The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002
Nobel co-recipient Daniel Kahneman
Electrical Engineer, Experimental Economist. Founder, International Foundation for Research in Experimental Economics; Founder Economic Science Institute at Chapman University.
"... If I am ever reborn, I hope to be a madman yet again ..."
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Nobel Prize shared by J. Michael Bishop
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001
Physician, Scientist, Litterateur. Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Co-founder, Public Library of Science Journals. Initiated doubling NIH budget. Interests: cycling, rowing.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991
Chemist, Pharmacologist. Discovered principles for drug treatment; developed drugs - anticancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-gout, anti-malarial. Purines.
"I was a child with an insatiable thirst for knowledge. My beloved grandfather died of cancer when I was 15. I was highly motivated to discover a cure for this terrible disease".
Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Nobel Prize shared with Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1988 USA
Physicist, Cosmologist, Astrophysicist. Hobbies: Playing the Flute, Tennis, Mountaineering, Sailing.
To Ganga Library founder on 3 Aug 2014, "I have used your questions to me as an incentive to prepare a list of my publications".
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993
Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.
"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Nobel Prize also awarded to Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
National Medal of Science-Biological Sciences 1976 USA
Physician, Physiologist, Neuroendocrinologist. Peptide hormone production of brain. Visual Artist.
Alfred Nobel chose to associate Literature and Science in his legacy. The mission, role and responsibility to society of a scientist and an artist are the same.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Nobel Co-recipients David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1992
Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.
How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Nobel co-recipients Ragnar Granit, George Wald
Physician, Biophysicist. Physiological and chemical visual processes in eye.
"Vision itself is a dynamic process. There is little in the world that stands still, at least not as imaged in our retinas, for our eyes are always moving. The visual system is almost exclusively organized to detect change and motion."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Nobel co-recipient Servero Ochos
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1979
Physician, Scientist. Discovered mechanisms in biological synthesis of RNA and DNA - basis of discovery of recombinant DNA which helped ignite biotechnology revolution. Founder, DNAX Institute.
"With more scientists struggling for grants in an era of tight budgets, nobody is going to propose doing anything that is bold or creative."
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Nobel Prize also awarded to Edwin M. McMillan
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991
Nuclear Chemist. Transuranium - Plutonium. Isotopes identification. Actinide concept. Atomic Bomb. Peaceful use of atomic energy. Advisor to 10 US Presidents. Swedish ancestry. Journal since age 8 yrs. Hiking.
Franck Report: "I had joined a committee of scientists who advocated the use of the atomic bomb for demonstration purposes. We hoped the enemy would see the destructive power of this weapon and immediately surrender. In June, 1945, we attempted to deliver our plan, the Franck Report, to President Truman. I don't know if he ever saw our work..."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Nobel Co-recipients Tadeus Reichstein, Phillip S.Hench
Chemist. Adrenal cortex hormones including cortisone: structure, biological effects. Thyroid hormone thyroxine: isolated. Glutathione: crystallized, established structure.
What physiologic processes are modified by cortisone and how this influence is exerted are matters still locked within this hormone. Said Shakespeare's soothsayer, "In Nature's infinite book of secrecy a little I can read."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
Physician - Anatomic Pathologist, Father of Immunology. ABO Blood Groups, Rh Typing. Paroxysmal Haemoglobinuria. Polio. Spirochaetes. Chemistry into service of serology. Meticulous observation, description, understanding in many fields.
Rigorously demanding of himself. Energetic. By nature somewhat pessimistic, preferred to live away from people.
Characteristic of him - died pipette in hand.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927
Philosopher, Essayist wrote in French. Rich and vitalizing ideas and brilliant skill in presentation. President, Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of League of Nations.
Philosophical system demonstrating Nobel's idea of acknowledging with his Prizes, not human deeds but new ideas revealed through select personalities. Regain for man's consciousness the divine gift of intuition and to put reason in its proper place: serving and controlling ideas.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926
Italian writer. Idealistically inspired writings picture life with clarity. With depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general. Criticize moral norms and social values, but not criticize people who are victims of circumstances. Pet crow.
Constant faith in humankind and in God
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922
Spanish dramatist. In happy manner he continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama. Chiefly writer of comedies of manners and of one-act farces. Upon pediatrician father, at death, leaving comfortable income, he abandoned law studies. Never married.
"You meet the warrior when in battle but it is not until victory that you meet the gentleman".
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Nobel Co-recipient Archibald V. Hill
Physician. Energy conversions in muscle. Fine experimenter, Physiological Chemist.
Science should know no national barriers and prejudices. Scientists should pour oil smoothing real wisdom and rational self-reflection in agitated waves of national passions of people. This ethos of objectivity causes mutual understanding among nations. Consider all Nobel Prizes, 'Peace' Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920
Norwegian writer. In youth, poverty stricken. Little formal education. Leader of Neo-Romantic revolt. Promoted individualism. Exciting description of nature.
"I sat looking at her with rapt attention. What a wonderful pleasure to be sitting in a human dwelling again, and talk with a lively young girl instead of with myself!"
The Nobel Peace Prize 1922
Zoologist - Neuroscientist, Polar Explorer, Oceanographer, Humanitarian. 'Nansen Passports' for stateless refugees. Despite Russia then being suspect in Western nations, relief for 7,000,000 to 22,000,000 Russians dying of famine.
Ministered to refugees - methods became classic: custodial care, repatriation, rehabilitation, resettlement, emigration, integration.
Love of mankind is politics in practice.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921
Novelist, storyteller; almost all genres. Nobility of style, profound human sympathy, true Gallic temperament. Historical fiction evokes past civilizations with great charm, deep insight.
Post-World War I. At Nobel ceremony Frenchman France turned to Nobelist, German Nernst, exchanged a long and cordial handshake with him - a profoundly symbolic gesture.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916
Swedish Poet, Writer. New era in Swedish literature. Perspectives to inner life. Love for ancestral hearth and for home of one's birth most strongly links man to life.
"O Man, you will become wise only when you reach the summit of the evening-cool heights where all the earth is beheld"
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Indian Poet, Bangali, English. All literary genres. Voice of India's Spiritual Heritage. Social reformer. Promoted gender equality, empowerment of women. Indian National Movement participant. Mahathma Gandhi was his devoted friend. Founder, school in Shantiniketan. Author, National Anthem of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.
"Love does not claim possession, but gives freedom."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1913
Lawyer, Socialist, Parliamentarian, Peace Activist. International Peace Bureau. Internationalism, "An Intellectual Parliament" for Humanity. Cofounder, Institut international de bibliographie. Education. Women's rights. Labor. Cultural achievements.
When Germany invaded Belgium, 1914, "Peoples will be as before, the sheep sent to the slaughterhouses or to the meadows as it pleases the shepherds."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Nobel Co-recipient Tobias Asser
Publisher, Philosopher. Founder, Die Friedenswarte (peace publication). Permanent Court of Arbitration, Netherlands. Collaborator, Nobelist Bertha von Suttner. Propaganda for peace: war was proof of validity of pacifistic analysis of world politics.
War is not in itself a condition so much as the symptom of a condition, that of international anarchy.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911
Belgian writer in French. Lawyer. Many-sided literary activities. Dramatic works distinguished by a wealth of imagination. Poetic fancy. Reveals deep inspiration. Appeals to readers' own feelings, stimulates their imaginations.
When we lose one we love, our bitterest tears are called forth by the memory of hours when we loved not enough.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909
Author. Lofty idealism, vivid imagination. Described peasant life, Nordic nature accompanied by ethical strength, deep religious feeling. Respect for Nature, Women's Causes. 1914, became member of the Swedish Academy which awards Nobel Prize for Literature.
"Nothing on earth can make up for the loss of one who has loved you."
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908
Idealism raises our life to greatness above the hubbub of everyday life by representation of eternal truths; in midst of our dark situation it can strengthen our belief in reason of life. Only faith can enable us to cope with enormous obstacles, fill us with confidence of success.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1907
Nobel Co-recipient Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
'Oracle of International Law'. Practical Promoter of Peace. Teacher, judge, diplomat. International: private law, transport, military aviation, naval affairs, commercial paper used in international transactions.
Jurists, journalists can pave way for reform of nefarious practices, influencing nation to give up barbaric measures which its government has been unwilling to renounce.
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906
Nobel Co-recipient Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
Poet, Senator. Wrote poetry as child. Excellent translator, literary historian, orator. Conducted research in every phase of literature and eloquently expressed his findings. Poetry inspired compatriots in war for Italian independence, enjoyed immense popularity at home and abroad. Greatest Italian literary figure in the latter part of the nineteenth century.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
President, USA. International Peace Arbitrator, various treaties. Vigorous, businesslike. "We abhor bully, oppressor, in private or public life". Conservationist, protected 230,000,000 acres of public land.
After camping in Yosemite National Park, "It was like lying in a great solemn cathedral, far vaster and more beautiful than any built by man."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1905
Generalissimo, Peace Movement. Author, 'Lay Down Your Arms'. Permanent International Peace Bureau. Vigorously opposed militaristic traditions. Eternal truth: happiness created, developed in peace. Eternal right: individual's right to live.
"Inform me, convince me, and then I will do something great for the movement", Alfred Nobel said to Bertha von Suttner."
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Doctor. Founder of phototherapy in dermatology. Contributed to treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation. Researched effects of salt. Despite having Niemann-Pick disease, strong willed, persevering.
Early education in Denmark - Rector: "Niels is a very nice boy, but his gifts are small and he is quite devoid of energy." This may have been due to fagging for older pupils. Moved to school in Iceland; succeeded despite initially not knowing language.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1903
Co-founder, Inter-Parliamentary Union. Secretary, International Arbitration League. British Parliamentarian. World organizing. Prevent war. Founder, Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners.
Upon entering into treaties of arbitration, the disputants would have time for reflection, for while arbitrators were deliberating, passions of contending parties would cool and chances of war greatly diminished.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Alfred Nobel's contemporary. Apostle of Peace, Humanitarian, Economist, Lawyer, Politician. Founder, French peace society. Free trade between independent nations promotes peace. Inspired by Nobelist Randal Cremer.
Opposed France's colonial policy. 1905 Sweden-Norway conflict, declared, '…peaceful solution will make me hundred times happier than when I received Nobel Prize…' Wish fulfilled.