Chemist, Inventor, Awesome Administrator, Social Reformer.
"It could and should soon come to pass that all states pledge themselves collectively to attack an aggressor. That would make war impossible, and would force even the most brutal and unreasonable Power to appeal to a court of arbitration, or else keep quiet."
Physical organic chemist. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Sole author - 7 consecutive papers. Heck reaction: important concept, tool for organic and medicinal chemists; fuorescence labeling of DNA bases - sequencing DNA/Genome. Thinner computer screens in future. "Great art in test tube."
Growing orchids in early teens lead to passion for chemistry.
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1982
Physicist, molecular biologist, behavioral biologist (neurogeneticist). Post Pearl Harbor worked in secret wartime project studying semiconducting properties of germanium, work that foreshadowed development of transistor. Functional gene is a linear stretch of DNA with definable boundaries. Stretches of DNA are all linked to each other as adjacent pieces of chromosome.
Organic Chemist. Development of use of boron into important reagents in organic synthesis. School, advanced several times, graduating at 12; refused further advancement, avoiding being sister's classmate.
Graduating, Depression years, future wife Sarah gave him gift, Stock's 'Hydrides of Boron and Silicon' because cheapest chemistry book! Led to Nobel Prize!
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
National Medal of Sciences - Biological Sciences 1978
Co-Nobelists: Robert W. Holley, Marshall W. Nirenberg
Organic Chemist, Biochemist. 'Genetic code interpretation, function in protein synthesis. Pioneered synthesizing biologically active gene, determine codon triplets'
nucleotides order. Unraveled genetic code, how nucleic acids form proteins. Pioneered genetic engineering. Multidisciplinary work.
"Wife brought sense of purpose. In foreign country, I felt out of place everywhere, at home nowhere."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1927
Nobel co-recipient Ferdinand Buisson
Historian. Member, German Parliament. Professor, Berlin University
"…Kant found the only assurance for peace in the idea that war would become so terrible and unbearable that human beings, even though they remain as morally weak as they now are, would be forced to work together for peace…"
The Nobel Peace Prize 1905
Generalissimo, Peace Movement. Author, 'Lay Down Your Arms'. Permanent International Peace Bureau. Vigorously opposed militaristic traditions. Eternal truth: happiness created, developed in peace. Eternal right: individual's right to live.
"Inform me, convince me, and then I will do something great for the movement", Alfred Nobel said to Bertha von Suttner."
The Nobel Peace Prize 1903
Co-founder, Inter-Parliamentary Union. Secretary, International Arbitration League. British Parliamentarian. World organizing. Prevent war. Founder, Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners.
Upon entering into treaties of arbitration, the disputants would have time for reflection, for while arbitrators were deliberating, passions of contending parties would cool and chances of war greatly diminished.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Nobel co-recipient Albert Gobat
Permanent International Peace Bureau [1910 Nobel Peace Prize]. Nobelist Passy's description: "exactitude, firmness." History Demonstrates War's Futility. Predicted, 1901: Despite modern weapons' destructiveness, wars will ebb, flow. Alfred Nobel's Contemporary.
Nobel Chairperson Løvland, "You Swiss, with your sense of life's realities, have special gift for taking ideas from realm of dreams and turning them into realities."
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