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Publications
John Gurdon Noble

Photo: courtesy Dr.Gurdon's Secretary Ms. Dilly Bradford, 24 Mar 2014.

Sir John B. Gurdon Kt DPhil DSc FRS

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Nobel co-recipient Shinya Yamanaka

Developmental Biologist. Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Hobbies: Outdoor sports, mountaineering, travelling, but not theatre, music, reading.

At age15, damning school report: …he will not listen, but will insist in doing his work his own way…has ideas of becoming a Scientist…waste of time for him and teachers.

`Know Thyself

Publications - Europe PMC, Pubmed

Capecchi

Photo: © Nobel Foundation

Mario R. Capecchi Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Nobel prize also awarded to Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Molecular Geneticist. Introduced specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells. Gene Targeting, Homeobox Genes, Development, Behavior.

Mother incarcerated as political prisoner, Germany. "At age 4½, I set off on my own, living in streets, orphanages; joining gangs of homeless children; generally hungry. Vivid recollections, brutal beyond description."

Publications

Lauterbur

Photo: Wikipedia Commons

Paul C. Lauterbur Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988

Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.

"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."

Publications

Louis Ignarro

Photo: Courtesy Dr.Louis Ignarro

Louis J. Ignarro Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Nobel Prize also awarded to Robert F. Furchgott and Ferid Murad

Molecular & Medical Pharmacologist

While testifying before Congress in 2000, Ignarro remarked: "Only in America could the son of an uneducated carpenter receive the Nobel Prize in Medicine."

Publications

Varmus

Photo: NIH

Harold Varmus M.D.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Nobel Prize shared by J. Michael Bishop
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Physician, Scientist, Litterateur. Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Co-founder, Public Library of Science Journals. Initiated doubling NIH budget. Interests: cycling, rowing.

'Unflappable Varmus'

Publications

McClintock

Drawing by Nwton Llorente

Barbara McClintock Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983
The President's National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1970

Cytogeneticist. Mobile genetic elements, 1948. Nobel after 35 years. Skilled experimentalist, master cytological detail interpreter, brilliant theoretician. Solo labor, no technical help. Friendly fellow scientists. Discriminated as woman.

"Tacit assumptions - substance of dogma - served as barrier to effective communication. My understanding of phenomenon was too radical for time."

Publications

Sperry

Drawing by Nwton Llorente

Roger Wolcott Sperry Ph.D. [Zoology], M.A. [Psychology]

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Nobel co-recipients David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel
The President's National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1989

Psychologist, Philosopher, Zoologist, Neuroanatomist. Functional specialization of cerebral hemispheres. Split-brain studies. Duality of consciousness. Mind and consciousness. High ethical standards. Authorship generosity.

Ralph Gerard, "I know of nobody else who has disposed of cherished ideas of his doctoral and postdoctoral sponsors, at that time the acknowledged leaders in their fields."

Publications

Brown

Drawing by Nwton Llorente

George Davis Snell D.Sc.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
Nobel co-recipients: Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset

Geneticist, Transplantation Immunologist. Genetically determined structures on cell surface that regulate immunological reactions, the major histocompatibility complex, HLA. Thesis work on linkage in mice largely determined future work. Interest: social evolution.

"In examining histocompatibility genetics as one of several potential new undertakings, I thought I saw possibilities for new openings."

Publications

Nathans

Daniel Nathans as teenager, leaning on tree stump, 1942-1945.Photo: National Library of Medicine, USA

Daniel M. Nathans M.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993

Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.

"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."

Publications

Roger Guillemin

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Roger Guillemin

Roger Guillemin M.D., Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Nobel Prize also awarded to Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
National Medal of Science-Biological Sciences 1976 USA

Physician, Physiologist, Neuroendocrinologist. Peptide hormone production of brain. Visual Artist.

Alfred Nobel chose to associate Literature and Science in his legacy. The mission, role and responsibility to society of a scientist and an artist are the same.

Publications

Temin

Drawing: Newton Llorente

Howard M. Temin Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Nobel Co-recipients David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1992

Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.

How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.

Publications

Hartline

Sketch: Newton Llorente

Haldan K. Hartline Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Nobel co-recipients Ragnar Granit, George Wald

Physician, Biophysicist. Physiological and chemical visual processes in eye.

"Vision itself is a dynamic process. There is little in the world that stands still, at least not as imaged in our retinas, for our eyes are always moving. The visual system is almost exclusively organized to detect change and motion."

Publications

Rous

Drawing by Newton Llorente

Peyton Rous M.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Co-Nobelist Charles B. Huggins

Physician, Pathologist, Scientist. Tumor-inducing Rous Sarcoma Virus, tumor filtrate transplantability. Nobel 50 yrs after discovery. Blood transfusion, world's first blood bank, Rous-Turner solution. Accurate editing, content, style. Experiments: extreme clarity. Equanimity, warmth. Many old are young to life.

"Uneducated men can be as great-hearted, lovable as those who know much."

Publications

Kornberg

Source: US National Library of Medicine

Arthur Kornberg M.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Nobel co-recipient Servero Ochos
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1979

Physician, Scientist. Discovered mechanisms in biological synthesis of RNA and DNA - basis of discovery of recombinant DNA which helped ignite biotechnology revolution. Founder, DNAX Institute.

"With more scientists struggling for grants in an era of tight budgets, nobody is going to propose doing anything that is bold or creative."

Publications

Lederberg

Lederberg in New Delhi, India. Source: NIH/Wikipedia

Joshua Lederberg Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Nobel co-recipients George Beadle, Edward Tatum
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1989

Geneticist. Genetic recombination and organization of genetic material of bacteria. Artificial intelligence. NASA seeking life on Mars. Fastest rate possible for growth of bacterial cell and why. Nobel Prize at age 33.

At Nobel Banquet, "Pride is humbled as humility is exalted in the dignity and splendor of this occasion."

Publications

Beadle

Drawing by Newton Llorente

George Wells Beadle Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Co-Nobelists Edward Tatum, Joshua Lederberg

Biochemical Geneticist. Discovered that genes act by regulating definite chemical events. Brought era of classical genetics to a close and launched molecular age.

"It was a time when one went to work in the morning wondering what new excitement the day would bring." - Colleague and biographer Norman H. Horowitz.

Publications

Beadle

Drawing by Newton Llorente

Edward L. Tatum Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Co-Nobilists George Beadle, Joshua Lederberg

Geneticist, Microbiologist, Biochemist. Genes act by regulating definite chemical events. Changed from Drosophila to Neurospora. Nurtured younger scientists. Generous spirit, scientific vision.

"Ability to balance critical scientific objectivity, personal ambition, interdependence on others-some scientists take lifetime to learn-was ingrained in Tatum from beginning." - Mentee, Biographer Joshua Lederberg.

Publications

Enders

Drawing by Newton Llorente

John Franklin Enders Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
Co-Nobelists Thomas H. Weller, Frederick C. Robbins

Virologist, Bacteriologist. Discovered ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture. Cytopathic effect. Interferon, Viral Oncogenesis. Tissue culture enabled identifying hundreds of viruses, vaccine development.

Memorial to Advisor Zinsser: animated spontaneous conversation - literature, politics. Voltaire seemed around corner; Laurence Sterne upon the stair. Laboratory became way of life.

Publications

Weller

Drawing by Newton Llorente

Thomas H. Weller M.D., M.S.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
Co- Nobelists John F. Enders, Frederick C. Robbins

Physician, Virologist, Parasitologist. Discovered ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture. Isolated many viruses, parasites; developed diagnostic tests. Isolated German measles in son. Tissue culture enabled identifying hundreds of viruses, vaccine development.

Nobel Committee Sven Gard: tissue cultures will do for virology what Koch accomplished by culture media.

Publications

Robbins

Drawing by Newton Llorente

Frederick C. Robbins M.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
Co-Nobelists John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller

Physician, Virologist. Discovered ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture. Investigated infectious hepatitis, typhus fever, Q fever, mumps, herpes simplex and vaccinia. Supervised diagnostic virus laboratory. Educator, Science Statesperson. Interest: International health. Tissue culture enabled identifying hundreds of viruses, vaccine development.

Publications

Lipmann

Photo: Wikimedia commons

Fritz A. Lipmann M.D.,Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Co-Nobelist Hans Krebs
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1966

Physician, Biochemist. Discovered co-enzyme A, its importance for intermediary metabolism. Identified serine phosphate as constituent of phosphoproteins which contain phosphate. CMP represents metabolically active carbamyl donor.

Liljestrand, Science Academy: …Regarding fundamental discoveries laymen ask for immediate practical application. Counter question of Benjamin Franklin: Of what use is a new-born baby?

Publications

Waksman

Drawing: Newton Llorente

Selman A. Waksman

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Ukrainian-born American Microbiologist, Biochemist. Isolated several antibiotics including Streptomycin for Tuberculosis and Neomycin. Proceeds earned from patents funded Waksman Institute of Microbiology and Waksman Foundation for Microbiology.

"The Lord hath created medicines out of the earth; and he that is wise will not abhor them. Ecclesiasticus, XXXVIII , 4"

Publications

Kendall

Drawing:Newton Llorente

Edward Calvin Kendall Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Nobel Co-recipients Tadeus Reichstein, Phillip S.Hench

Chemist. Adrenal cortex hormones including cortisone: structure, biological effects. Thyroid hormone thyroxine: isolated. Glutathione: crystallized, established structure.

What physiologic processes are modified by cortisone and how this influence is exerted are matters still locked within this hormone. Said Shakespeare's soothsayer, "In Nature's infinite book of secrecy a little I can read."

Publications

Muller

Photo: National Library of Medicine

Hermann Joseph Muller Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946

Geneticist. Production of mutations by X-ray irradiation.

"Do you consider it possible to discover a cosmic ray which - applied to humanity - would cause a mutation making it peace-loving and suited to happy relationships? You'll be awarded another Medicine and many Peace Nobels!" - Sigurd Curman, Banquet Speech

Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory

Fleming

Photo: Imperial War Museums/Wikipedia Commons.

Sir Alexander Fleming M.B., B.S.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Co-Nobelists: Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey

Physician - Bacteriologist, Immunologist. While researching Influenza virus, made ground breaking discovery: penicillin, by not neglecting chance observation - mould contaminating culture plate. WWI caused interest in Antiseptics. WWII, production cost was immaterial. Destiny.

Lone worker gets idea; details developed by team, but prime idea is due to enterprise, thought, perception of an individual.

Publications

Erlanger

Photo: Wikipedia Commons

Joseph Erlanger

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Nobel co-recipient Herbert S. Gasser

Physician, Physiologist. Single nerve fibers highly differentiated functions. Cathode-ray oscillograph study of nerve action potentials. Circulatory system electrophysiology. Recording sphygmomanometer. Auriculo-ventricular bundle functions. Pulse pressure influence on kidney secretion, orthostatic albuminuria. Sound production in arteries. Metabolism with shortened intestines. Traumatic shock.

Career "fraught with series of fortunate circumstances, fortunate decisions."

Publications

Gasser

Drawing by Newton Llorente

Herbert S. Gasser

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Co-Nobelist Joseph Erlanger

Physician, Electrophysiologist, Pharmacologist. Discovered differentiated functions of single nerve fibers. Two types of nerve fibers with different thicknesses; thicker fibers convey nerve impulses fast.

Two times for working on a problem - before anyone has thought of it and after everyone else has left it - result: innovator or finalist.

Publications

Landsteiner

Drawing by Newton llorente

Karl Landsteiner

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Physician - Anatomic Pathologist, Father of Immunology. ABO Blood Groups, Rh Typing. Paroxysmal Haemoglobinuria. Polio. Spirochaetes. Chemistry into service of serology. Meticulous observation, description, understanding in many fields.

Rigorously demanding of himself. Energetic. By nature somewhat pessimistic, preferred to live away from people.
Characteristic of him - died pipette in hand.

Publications

Meyerhof

Photo: Nobel Foundation. Source: Wikipedia Commons

Otto F. Meyerhof

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Nobel Co-recipient Archibald V. Hill

Physician. Energy conversions in muscle. Fine experimenter, Physiological Chemist.

Science should know no national barriers and prejudices. Scientists should pour oil smoothing real wisdom and rational self-reflection in agitated waves of national passions of people. This ethos of objectivity causes mutual understanding among nations. Consider all Nobel Prizes, 'Peace' Prizes.

Publications

Michikov

Photo: 1909, Wikipedia Commons

Ilya Mechnikov Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel Co-recipient Paul Ehrlich

Ukrainian Zoologist. Theory of cellular immunity. Father of Natural immunity. Research: Comparative embryology, Phagocytosis, Anthrax, Rabies.

Weak eyesight, heart troubles, difficulties in University lead to pessimism. Twice attempted suicide. Discovery of phagocytosis completely changed his outlook on life; abandoned his pessimistic philosophy and determined to find further proof of hypothesis.

Publications (in French)

Erlich

Photo: Nobelprize.org

Paul Ehrlich

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Nobel corecipient Ilya Mechnikov

Physician, Scientist. Immunologist, Hematologist, A Founder of Chemotherapy. Stained tissues & classified stains: basic, acid, neutral. Stained granules in blood cells; pioneer in Hematology. Stained tubercle bacillus. Standardized sera. Idea: existence of relation of chemical constitution of drugs to mode of action & affinity for cells against which they are directed.

"Schwann established the cell as the final biological unit. Biology owes its immeasurable progress to the introduction of this concept of the cell. This concept is the axis around which the whole of modern science of life revolves"

Publications

Finsen

Photo: nobelprize.org

Niels Ryberg Finsen M.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Doctor. Founder of phototherapy in dermatology. Contributed to treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation. Researched effects of salt. Despite having Niemann-Pick disease, strong willed, persevering.

Early education in Denmark - Rector: "Niels is a very nice boy, but his gifts are small and he is quite devoid of energy." This may have been due to fagging for older pupils. Moved to school in Iceland; succeeded despite initially not knowing language.

Publications

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