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Great • Alfred • Nobel • Gives • Aspiration
Prize Winners' Ideas & Thought Processes!

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National Medal of Science. National Medal of Technology and Innovation

National Medal of Science USA

National Medal of Technology and Innovation USA

David Mumford

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Mumford

David Mumford Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Mathematics and Computer Science 2009

Mathematician. Algebraic geometry, Vision and Pattern Theory. Pure and Applied math. History and Philosophy of math, Math education. Sailing.

"Research enterprise depends on the free dissemination of scholarly material.

Michkin

Photo: LN, NIMH

Mortimer Mishkin Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2009

Cognitive neuroscientist, Business Administrator. Brain/behavior relationships in humans, nonhuman primates. Identified … areas in cerebral cortex essential for perception and memory: cortico-limbic circuit responsible for memory of facts and events; cortico-striatal circuit responsible for learning of different types of habits and motor skills.

"Perseverance is built into the trait of curiosity, a scientist's motivation. If you're sufficiently curious, you're willing to continue despite failures and obstacles. It's so easy to give up."

Posner

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Michael I. Posner. Upon receiving Carty award 2012.

Michael I. Posner Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Behaviorial and Social Science 2008

Psychologist. Cognitive neuroscience - attention, early brain development, changes in brain systems with learning; developmental disorders; brain injury. Posner cueing task. Founding Director, Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology.

Robert Lefkowitz

Photo: © Nobel Foundation

Robert J. Lefkowitz MD

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Nobel Prize shared with Brian K. Kobilka
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2007 USA

Physician- Cardiologist, Scientist. G-protein-coupled receptors; approximately half of all medicines used today use this kind of receptor.

"Strong family history of coronary artery disease ... at age 50 I had quadruple bypass surgery [1994]. I minimize my risk factors with daily physical exercise, a vegetarian diet and appropriate medications".

Robert Lefkowitz

Photo: Courtesy Nina Fedoroff. Credit: Douglas Mills, New York Times

Nina V. Fedoroff Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2006

Plant Molecular Biologist. Geneticist. First to clone and characterize maize transposons. Founding director, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences. Interests: Education, Public Policy.

"It's as much wanting to succeed as it is to using your brains. I've seen very bright people fall out of the system".


Photo: Courtesy Dr. Gordon Bower

Gordon H. Bower Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Behavior and Social Science 2005

"Psychologist, Cognitive-Social. Human memory, mnemonic devices, retrieval strategies, recording strategies, category learning. Cognitive processes, emotion, imagery, language and reading comprehension as they relate to memory. Mathematical Models, Computer Simulation of Memory, Behavior Modification."


Photo: Courtesy Evelyn M. Witkin

Evelyn Maisel Witkin Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Biological Science 2002

Zoologist - Molecular Geneticist. E. coli. DNA mutagenesis and DNA repair. Interests: Science education in public schools; Connections between contemporary Victorians poet Robert Browning and Charles Darwin.

Essentially same grant from 1956 until retirement in 1991.

Capecchi

Photo: © Nobel Foundation

Mario R. Capecchi Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Nobel prize also awarded to Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Molecular Geneticist. Introduced specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells. Gene Targeting, Homeobox Genes, Development, Behavior.

Mother incarcerated as political prisoner, Germany. "At age 4½, I set off on my own, living in streets, orphanages; joining gangs of homeless children; generally hungry. Vivid recollections, brutal beyond description."

Varmus

Photo: NIH

Harold Varmus M.D.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Nobel Prize shared by J. Michael Bishop
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Physician, Scientist, Litterateur. Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Co-founder, Public Library of Science Journals. Initiated doubling NIH budget. Interests: cycling, rowing.

'Unflappable Varmus'

Bass

Photo: Courtesy Dr. George F. Bass

George Fletcher Bass Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Archeologist. Father of underwater archaeology. Excavated shipwrecks of Bronze Age, Classical Age, Byzantine. Founded Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Findings throw new light into beginning of free enterprise system, dating Homer's Odyssey, chronologies of Egyptian dynasties, Helladic cultures; histories of technology, economics, music, art, religion.

"The greatest thrill comes from the library, when you can understand something about what you've found, when it all comes together and it means something."

Likens

Photo: Courtesy Gene Elden Likens

Gene Likens Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2001

Zoologist. Ecosystem ecology, biogeochemistry, acid rain, human impacts on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Linked fossil fuel combustion to acid rain. Founder, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Andreason

Photo: Courtesy Nancy C. Andreasen

Nancy Andreasen M.D.,Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 2000

Psychiatrist, Litterateur. Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience, Genomics, Neuroimaging, Neuroscience of Creativity, Schizophrenia. Writes books to educate laity and reduce stigma. Founding Chair, Neuroscience Section, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Creative people tend to be very persistent, even when confronted with skepticism or rejection.

Yau

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Shing-Tung Yau

Shing-Tung Yau Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Mathematics and Computer Science 1997

Mathematician. Differential geometry, Differential equations, General relativity. Calabi-Yau manifolds. Miyaoka-Yau inequality. Founder: Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong; Morningside Center of Mathematics at Academia Sinica; Center of Mathematical Sciences at Zhejiang University; Tsinghua Mathematical Sciences Center, China. Adviser more than 50 doctoral students.

Family fled mainland China and Communist takeover when he was an infant. Leader of street gang and often skipped school.

Steinberger

Photo: Sigismund von Dobschütz. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Jack Steinberger Ph.D.

Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Nobel Prize shared with Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz
National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1988 USA

Physicist, Cosmologist, Astrophysicist. Hobbies: Playing the Flute, Tennis, Mountaineering, Sailing.

To Ganga Library founder on 3 Aug 2014, "I have used your questions to me as an incentive to prepare a list of my publications".

Lauterbur

Photo: Wikipedia Commons

Paul C. Lauterbur Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Nobel Co-recipient Sir Peter Mansfield
The President's National Medal of Science - Physical Sciences 1987
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation 1988

Chemist. Magnetic resonance imaging.

"Every great idea in history has the red stamp of rejection on its face. If you scratch any innovation's surface, you'll find the scars: they've been roughed up and thrashed around by the masses and the leading minds before they made it into your life."

Stigler

Drawing: Ami Mowris

George J. Stigler Ph.D., M.B.A.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982
The President's National Medal of Science - Behavior and Social Science 1987

Economist - industrial organization. 'Seminal studies of industrial structures; functioning of markets; causes, effects of public regulation.' Great teacher. Writings easy to admire, joy to read, impossible to imitate. Interest: many areas of economics; history of economics. Very Humorous.

Chicago Economics Department intellectual ferment - intense intellectual atmosphere; captivated him.

Lauterbur

Photo: Courtesy Dr.Roald Hoffmann

Roald Hoffmann Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981
Nobel Prize also awarded to Kenichi Fukui
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1983 USA

Chemist, Poet, Philosopher, Writer, Chemistry Teacher Text/Television.

Sperry

Drawing by Nwton Llorente

Roger Wolcott Sperry Ph.D. [Zoology], M.A. [Psychology]

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Nobel co-recipients David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel
The President's National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1989

Psychologist, Philosopher, Zoologist, Neuroanatomist. Functional specialization of cerebral hemispheres. Split-brain studies. Duality of consciousness. Mind and consciousness. High ethical standards. Authorship generosity.

Ralph Gerard, "I know of nobody else who has disposed of cherished ideas of his doctoral and postdoctoral sponsors, at that time the acknowledged leaders in their fields."

Roald Hoffman

Photo: Courtesy Michael H. Freedman

Michael H. Freedman Ph.D.

National Medal of Science - Mathematics and Computer Science 1987

American mathematician. Proof of Poincare Conjecture in dimension four. One of the greatest achievements in mathematics in this century. Fields Medal, 1986.

Brown

Drawing: Newton Llorente

Herbert C Brown Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
The President's National Medel of Sciences - Physical Sciences, 1969

Organic Chemist. Development of use of boron into important reagents in organic synthesis. School, advanced several times, graduating at 12; refused further advancement, avoiding being sister's classmate.

Graduating, Depression years, future wife Sarah gave him gift, Stock's 'Hydrides of Boron and Silicon' because cheapest chemistry book! Led to Nobel Prize!

Nathans

Daniel Nathans as teenager, leaning on tree stump, 1942-1945.Photo: National Library of Medicine, USA

Daniel M. Nathans M.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Nobel co-recipients Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1993

Physician, Molecular Biologist - Genetics. Restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. Groundwork for human genome project, drug insulin. Able administrator - high signal-to-noise ratio.

"Valuable internship year in medicine with masterful clinician Robert Loeb; The glimpses of human strength and frailty that a physician sees are still with me."

Roger Guillemin

Photo: Courtesy Dr. Roger Guillemin

Roger Guillemin M.D., Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Nobel Prize also awarded to Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
National Medal of Science-Biological Sciences 1976 USA

Physician, Physiologist, Neuroendocrinologist. Peptide hormone production of brain. Visual Artist.

Alfred Nobel chose to associate Literature and Science in his legacy. The mission, role and responsibility to society of a scientist and an artist are the same.

McClintock

Drawing by Nwton Llorente

Barbara McClintock Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983
The President's National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1970

Cytogeneticist. Mobile genetic elements, 1948. Nobel after 35 years. Skilled experimentalist, master cytological detail interpreter, brilliant theoretician. Solo labor, no technical help. Friendly fellow scientists. Discriminated as woman.

"Tacit assumptions - substance of dogma - served as barrier to effective communication. My understanding of phenomenon was too radical for time."

Temin

Drawing: Newton Llorente

Howard M. Temin Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Nobel Co-recipients David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1992

Virologist. Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cell. DNA provirus and RNA-directed DNA synthesis. Reverse Transcriptase. Intellectually courageous. Civic minded.

How fortunate to live in a country at a time and in a social class that has enabled us to realize our potential. Not been possible for many.

Hofstadter

Photo: Courtesty son Douglas Hofstadter

Robert Hofstadter Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physics, 1961
Nobel co-recipient Rudolf Mössbauer
National Medal of Science - Physical Science 1986

Nuclear and particle physicist. Discoverer of sodium iodide scintillation counters. Carried out electron scattering from atomic nuclei, revealing structure of nuclei and nucleons. Original proposer of two-mile SLAC linear accelerator. Pioneer of gamma-ray astronomy, using EGRET detector aboard the Compton observatory. Research in laser fusion, applications of physics to medicine.

kornberg

Source: US National Library of Medicine

Arthur Kornberg M.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Nobel co-recipient Servero Ochos
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1979

Physician, Scientist. Discovered mechanisms in biological synthesis of RNA and DNA - basis of discovery of recombinant DNA which helped ignite biotechnology revolution. Founder, DNAX Institute.

"With more scientists struggling for grants in an era of tight budgets, nobody is going to propose doing anything that is bold or creative."

Lederberg

Lederberg in New Delhi, India. Source: NIH/Wikipedia

Joshua Lederberg Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Nobel co-recipients George Beadle, Edward Tatum
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1989

Geneticist. Genetic recombination and organization of genetic material of bacteria. Artificial intelligence. NASA seeking life on Mars. Fastest rate possible for growth of bacterial cell and why. Nobel Prize at age 33.

At Nobel Banquet, "Pride is humbled as humility is exalted in the dignity and splendor of this occasion."

Lipmann

Photo: Wikimedia commons

Fritz A. Lipmann M.D.,Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Co-Nobelist Hans Krebs
National Medal of Science - Biological Sciences 1966

Physician, Biochemist. Discovered co-enzyme A, its importance for intermediary metabolism. Identified serine phosphate as constituent of phosphoproteins which contain phosphate. CMP represents metabolically active carbamyl donor.

Liljestrand, Science Academy: …Regarding fundamental discoveries laymen ask for immediate practical application. Counter question of Benjamin Franklin: Of what use is a new-born baby?

Glenn Seaborg

Photo: 1964. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Glenn T. Seaborg Ph.D.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Nobel Prize also awarded to Edwin M. McMillan
National Medal of Science - Chemistry 1991

Nuclear Chemist. Transuranium - Plutonium. Isotopes identification. Actinide concept. Atomic Bomb. Peaceful use of atomic energy. Advisor to 10 US Presidents. Swedish ancestry. Journal since age 8 yrs. Hiking.

Franck Report: "I had joined a committee of scientists who advocated the use of the atomic bomb for demonstration purposes. We hoped the enemy would see the destructive power of this weapon and immediately surrender. In June, 1945, we attempted to deliver our plan, the Franck Report, to President Truman. I don't know if he ever saw our work..."

“One comes to be of just such stuff as that on which the mind is set” - Maithri Upanishath, VI.34:3

“…the peace that is found in libraries and laboratories…” - Louis Pasteur
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